Sub areas of philosophy
Metaphysics – what is?
Epistemology – what can I know?
Ethics – what ought to be?
Logic- what is good reasoning?
Student of Socrates
There are no recorded teaching of Socrates
Plato three different periods- early middle and late
Middle- what is ethics and what is morality?
Morality- give back to what is due.
Is morality the following of a rule or is it something more involved? Do you really achieve obedience by punishing?
Thrasymuchas- morality is whatever benefits the strongest.
The benefit isn’t to the expert but to the clients to which the experts help. For example the clients benefit from the lawyer. We have to judge the expertise of the ruling.
The immoral person is never happy with anything.
Moral people can look back and say that they are ok with the person he/she is.
Chapter 2: The republic
Types of goods
1. Good for their own sake – intrinsic goods. Simple pleasures and enjoyments. 2. Goods desirable in themselves and in their consequences. Example: knowledge and sight. 3. goods only desirable in their consequences. – results. Examples: lottery ticket. Instrumental goods. Morality is under number 2. Because he believes it’s the highest and best category of number two. Glaucon tells a story about the ring of Gyges. There is an earthquake and he falls to the ground, Gyges goes into the ground and sees a cave. Inside this cave he sees a bronze horse. He peers into the window and sees a giant corpse that is without clothes. Except for a gold ring on his finger. This ring gives him the power to be invisible. He seduces the queen and kills the kings. Purpose of the story is to capture the idea that if you could get away with it you wouldn’t be moral. TYPE 3 GOOD. The story captures the reality of human nature that humans are self interested.
Glanucon Socrates appear really are 2 1 Moral moral 1 4 Moral immoral 4 2 immoral moral 3 3 immoral immoral row 3 is the hardest row to prove.
morality is worthwhile in and of itself regardless of itself and how immorality harms itself. What morality does to one who possess it and what immorality does to one who possess it. Aspect of character.
Chapter 3 : The Republic
Wants to find the real morality in the community, if we find this in the community we can trace it back to what would be in the person. Need for food clothing and shelter.
We don’t all have the same talents and abilities therefore making your own shelter or hunting for food may need to be dependent on other people who are better at those things. Specialization of classes for purpose of group survival.
Workers – self interested
as the community expands the community needs more of the working class. Now the community needs more land. In order to obtain more land, the community needs soldiers to take land and an army to protect their land.
The guardians – city interested
they are in a position to take what they want from the workers and they can take what they want without having to pay for it. Because they are in this position their goal cant be self-interest. It’s a concern of others. They also need education (who to protect) and how to fight. All the stories they here must not be of lying or corruption, yet stories of high morals, duties, responsibilities, courage, righteousness.
People are aggressive and gentle. How do we balance these things? If you are a worker you can be aggressive for yourself. However if you’re a soldier the aggressiveness and gentleness should be directed elsewhere. The revelation of recognizing the different goals and needs...
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