Neutralizing Sodium Hydroxide Using Different Concentrations of Hydrochloric Acid

Pages: 6 (1382 words) Published: September 7, 2013
Neutralization experiment

AIM:- 

To investigate how heat is given out in neutralizing sodium hydroxide  (NaOH) using different concentrations of Hydrochloric Acid. 

Background Information:- 

Substances that neutralize acids are called alkalis. An acid is a  substance that forms hydrogen ions (H+ ) when placed in water. It can  also be described as a proton donor as it provides H+ ions. An  example of an acid is hydrochloric acid (HCl), Sulphuric acid (H2SO4)  etc. An alkali is a soluble base and forms hydroxyl ions (OH-) when  placed in water. It can be called a proton acceptor and will accept  hydrogen ions to form H2O. An example of an alkali is Sodium Hydroxide  (NaOH). 

Neutralization Reaction:- 

[IMAGE]Acid + Alkali Salt + Water 

[IMAGE]Hydrochloric acid + Sodium Hydroxide Sodium 
Chloride + Water 

[IMAGE]HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) 

[IMAGE]H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) + Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq) Na+ 
(aq) + Cl- (aq) +H+ + OH- 

[IMAGE]The above is an example of a neutralization reaction, involving  an acid and an alkali. The result is a salt and water. In every  neutralization reaction, the metal in the alkali (Na+ here) takes the  place oh the hydrogen in the acid, forming a metal compound called a  salt. The hydrogen and the hydroxide ions react to form water. As  bonds are made this is an exothermic reaction so heat will be given  out and this will be shown as an increase in temperature. The chemical  energy will be negative ( H is minus). 

APPRATUS/MATERIALS:- 

1. Polystyrene cup 

[IMAGE] 

2. Measuring cylinder 

[IMAGE] 

3. Thermometer (0. C to 50. C ) 

[IMAGE] 

4. Test Tubes 

[IMAGE] 

5. Sodium Hydroxide 

[IMAGE] 

6. Hydrochloric Acid 

Hydrogen atom 

Hydrochloric Acid molecule 

[IMAGE][IMAGE] 

Chlorine Atom 

[IMAGE][IMAGE] 

7. Dropper 

8. Goggles 

[IMAGE] 

9. Teat Tube stand 

[IMAGE] 

PREDICTION:- 

I think that the acid of higher concentration will need more alkali to  neutralize the acid which also means that there will be a greater  change in temperature and there will be more energy released. Linking  theory to prediction shows that in a higher concentrated acid there  will be more H+ ions so they will have a better chance of coming into  contact with the OH- ions and making new bonds which will result in  more energy released. For the lower concentration acid less alkali  will be needed to neutralize and there will be a low change in  temperature and there will be less heat given out. This is because  there will be less H+ ions so there will be a lower chance of them  coming in contact with the OH- ions, thus there will be less bonds  made and less energy given out. 

SAFETY MEASURES:- 

There are risks in this investigation as we are using harmful acids  and alkalis used, so we must minimize them. Acids are particularly  harmful to the skin and eyes therefore I will be wearing safety  goggles and a lab coat. I will also wipe out any spillages. Goggles  will be worn to prevent strong acids and alkalis getting in the eyes  as they are irritants and may cause permanent damage to the eyes and  other parts of body. The thermometer should be handled with care as  it has mercury which is poisonous. The apparatus should be handled  with care as they might be hot after the reaction. Glass apparatus  should be handled with care as they might break if they fall and  broken glass might hurt someone. I will be standing while doing the  experiment so that if acid or alkali is spilled I move away from it as  quickly as possible so that the damage done is minimized. Long Hair  will be tied back. Shirt sleeves should be rolled up to the elbow. The  lids of the chemicals are closed after they have been used. 

For a fair test:- 

1. The temperature would be kept the same throughout the experiment  because high temperature would decrease the time of reaction resulting  in inaccurate results. 

2. I would use a fix...
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