"Hydrochloric Acid" Essays and Research Papers

Hydrochloric Acid

STANDARDISATION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID REPORT Aim: To standardize an unknown solution of hydrochloric acid Method: See INSTRUCTIONS for practical 6.2 & 6.3 Results: Attempt No. | Titre (mL) | | 1 | 20.9 | Rough Titration | 2 | 20.5 | | 3 | 20.7 | Concordant Titres | 4 | 20.7 | | 5 | 20.7 | | (1) Tabled Results (2) Concordant Titrations Results 20.7 mL | 20.7 mL | 20.7 mL | Average of Concordant: (20.7 + 20.7 +20.7) 3= 20.7 mL Calculations: ...

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What Effect Will the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Have on the Rate of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Magnesium?

chemical reaction, the magnesium will dissolve in the hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas. This is because magnesium is higher than hydrogen in the reactivity series. Therefore, when the two reactants are combined, a displacement reaction occus and the magnesium displaces the hydrogen, forming magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas. Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq) -> MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid -> Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Aim The aim...

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Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

Hypothesis: In a reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid, the products calcium chloride, carbon dioxide and water are formed. I predict that the higher temperature of HCl acid, the higher the reaction rate will be, this is because at a higher temperature there will more fast-moving hydrochloric acid molecules per set volume. This means that there will be a higher chance of the calcium carbonate molecules colliding with the hydrochloric acid and reacting, with enough energy to break the activation...

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To Investigate How Does the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Affect the Rate of Reaction?

To investigate how does the concentration of Hydrochloric acid affect the rate of reaction? Outline I aim to discover how different concentrations of Hydrochloric acid influence the rates of reaction. In order to carry out this investigation I have decided to use marble chips, which I will vary the sizes as powder, small chips and large chips. I will also be changing the concentration, the different concentrations are as follows 0.2m, 0.5m, 1m, 1.5, 2m. I have chosen these concentrations as they...

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Concentration of Acid

the concentration of the acid solution changes the rate of the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and magnesium metal. • As the metal reacts with the acid, hydrogen gas is produced and the metal dissolves. To get an estimate of the rate of reaction, the time taken for a small piece of magnesium ribbon to dissolve (disappear) can be measured. This is a “clock reaction” and the reaction rate is proportional to 1/time taken SAFETY Dilute hydrochloric acid is harmful. Wear safety spectacles...

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Disappearing X Experiment. Coursework about sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Method, Results, Fair Testing, Evaluation included. Was marked with a passing grade.

sodium thiosulphate (thio) and hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium Thiosulphate "" sodium chloride + water + sulphur The reactants are both colourless, but one of the products, sulphur, is yellow, so we can use this fact to follow the rates of reaction. I am going to investigate how the concentration of the acid effects the speed of the reaction. Apparatus 1 small measuring cylinder 1 large measuring cylinder 1 small beaker 1 large beaker Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Thiosulphate Cross...

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Hydrochloric Acid

ICSE Class X Chapter 5 Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrochloric Acid Hydrogen chloride (HCl) : Formula : HCl Nature : Covalent. Molecular Mass : 36·5u [i.e. HCl = 1 + 35·5 = 36·5] Occurrence : (i) Present in gastric juices. (ii) Present in volcanic gases. Laboratory preparation of HCl gas : Hydrogen chloride gas is prepared in laboratory by heating conc. H2SO4 with NaCl. NaCl + H2SO4 Heat  → NaCl + NaHSO4 Heat  → NaHSO4 + HCl Sodium hydrogen sulphate Na2SO4 + HCl ...

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Extraction with Acid and Alkaline

Title:Extraction:Extraction with acid and alkaline Objective: 1. To recover benzoic acid and p-dichlorobenzene from its mixture using acid-alkaline extraction. 2. To determine the percentage recovery and melting point of benzoic acid and p-diclorobenzene. Apparatus:Separatory funnel(250mL),Buchner funnel,beaker. Materials:Benzoic acid,p-dichlorobenzene,ether,10% NaOH,conc.HCl,distilled water, anhydrous CaCl2. Introduction: Organic compounds in an aqueous mixture can be...

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LAB Report Experiment 7 Investigating Stoichiometry with Sodium Salts of Carbonic Acid

Gracen Seiler April 7th, 2015 Section- 109 Investigating Stoichiometry with Sodium Salts of Carbonic Acid Introduction- This experiment is intended to help find a better understanding of chemical stoichiometry through titrations of NaHCO3 and NA2CO3 with HCl. A chemical reaction is a process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance, as opposed to a change in physical form in a nuclear reaction. Titration is when a measured amount...

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How the Concentration Affects the Rate of the Reaction

concentration of an acid affects the rate of the reaction. I have set up the experiment’s equipment as shown on figure 1. As you can see by figure 1, I have used the reaction between sodium thisoulphate solution and hydrochloric acid (HCL) to come up with results that will help me draw conclusions regarding the effects of the concentration of the acid. I decided to use this particular reaction due to the fact that the product of the reaction between sodium thisoulphate and hydrochloric acid (HCL) is precipitates...

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The Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide

Method: place about 100cm3 of distilled water in a flask and add about one spatula of solid calcium hydroxide. Stopper the flask and shake well for one minute. Leave to stand for at least 24 hours. Titrate 10cm3 samples against 0.05 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid solution using methyl orange as an indicator. Obtain enough results to calculate an accurate average, and then calculate the number of moles of calcium hydroxide solution in 1 dm3 of solution. RAW DATA Titration number | Final volume Ca(OH)2...

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Rates of Reaction

sodium thiosulphate (Na S2 O3) affects the speed of its reaction with Hydrochloric acid (HCL). Introduction When Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid react they produce a cloudy precipitate. Both of the chemicals are clear solutions and they react together to form a yellow precipitate of sulphur, the equation for this reaction is: Na2 S2 O3 + HCL, H2 O + NaCL + SO2 + S Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric acid, Water + Sodium chloride + Sulphur dioxide Because the solution turns...

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The Volume of One Mole of Gas Under Conditions of Room Temperature and Pressure

burette. Whilst reacting with the hydrochloric acid, it dissolved and bubbles were visible. The hydrochloric acid slowly diffused downwards. Calculations: Volume of un-diffused hydrochloric acid = 25 cm³ Average mass of magnesium = 0.038 g Average volume of diffused hydrochloric acid = 11.1 cm³ Average volume of hydrogen produced = 38.9 cm³ | Mass of Mg(g) | Volume of hydrochloric acid (cm³) | Volume of water (cm³) | Volume of diffused hydrochloric acid(cm³) | Volume of hydrogen (cm³) | ...

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Internal Assessment

SACKEY IB1B Topic: Acid-Base Titration Aims: 1. To use methyl orange and phenolphthalein as indicators to determine accurately the end of an acid-base titration. 2. To present titration data correctly. Observations: Table of Results Showing The Amount Of 0.12 Mol/dm3 Hydrochloric Acid Required to Neutralise 25cm3 Of Sodium Carbonate of an unknown Concentration Using Methyl Orange Indicator. Pipette Solution | Sodium Carbonate | Mol/dm3 | Burette Solution | Hydrochloric Acid | 0.12Mol/dm3 |...

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Investigating Stoichiometry with Sodium Salts of Carbonic Acid

Experiment 7 Investigating Stoichiometry with Sodium Salts of Carbonic Acid Introduction: The student will perform the experiment in order to find the percent yield by using the theoretical value found using the balanced equation for sodium carbonate as well as sodium bicarbonate. The objective is to stabilize the substances by titrations and finding the percent yield when all the data is collected. The purpose of this procedure is so that the student will get better understanding of stoichiometry...

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Sodium Thiosulfate Reaction

eLearning 2009 Publication No. 91860 Rate of Reaction of Sodium Thiosulfate and Hydrochloric Acid Rate Laws Introduction The purpose of this demonstration is to investigate the effect of sodium thiosulfate concentration on the rate of reaction of sodium thiosulfate with hydrochloric acid. The reaction, which produces solid sulfur, will be followed by measuring the time needed for the reaction mixture to become opaque. The results will be analyzed graphically to determine the order of...

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Chlorine

protons and 18 neutrons in is nucleus. There are two isotopes for chlorine as well; Cl-35 and Cl-37. Chlorine was discovered in 1774 by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Sheele. Sheele came upon chlorine when he put a few drops of hydrochloric acid (HCl), then known as muriatic acid, onto a piece of manganese dioxide (MnO2). This caused a reaction where the pricduct was a yellowish-green gas that would later be named chlorine. At this point Sheele thought that this gas contained oxygen and was some sort...

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Osmosis in Egg

the concentration gradient. Cells respond to their external environment by shrinking, swelling, or staying the same based on the movement of water molecule. The eggshell is made of calcium carbonate. When calcium carbonate is in contact with hydrochloric acid, a chemical reaction will takes place and carbon dioxide is released. This results in production of gas bubbles on the surface of the egg. Hypothesis The higher the concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl), the lower the mass change of the quail’s...

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Lab Report 7 Investigating stoichiometry with Sodium Salts of Carbonic Acid

Experiment 7 INVESTIGATING STOICHIOMETRY WITH SODIUM SALTS OF CARBONIC ACID Introduction In this experiment we are going to get a better understanding of chemical stoichiometry. We are going to be reacting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) with hydrochloric acid (HCl). To start off the mass of two unknown substances (being the sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate) will be taken. We will need to construct balanced equations for both of the reactants with the HCl and...

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solubility of organic compounds

Forces Sucrose Water Hydrogen Bonding & London Dispersion Forces Class N (Neutral) Compounds Benzyl Alcohol Sulfuric Acid Hydrogen Bonding & London Dispersion Forces Benzaldehyde Sulfuric Acid Ion – Induced Dipole & London Dispersion Forces Class B (Basic) Compounds Aniline Hydrochloric Acid Ion – Dipole & London Dispersion Forces Class A (Acidic) Compounds Benzoic Acid NaOH Ion – Induced Dipole & London Dispersion Forces NaHCO3 Ion – Induced Dipole & London Dispersion Forces Phenol ...

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factors effecting reaction rates (chem lab)

Hot water 7. Room temperature water 8. 1M hydrochloric acid (HCl) 9. 3 M HCl 10. Iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) 11. Sodium chloride (NaCl) 12. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) 13. Potassium nitrate (KNO3) 14. 0.3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution 15. 8 test tubes 16. Test tube rack 17. 3 250mL beakers 18. Alka Seltzer tablet 19. 3 pieces of zinc metal Procedure: Particle size 1. Have two test tubes in the test tube rack. Put 1M hydrochloric acid into both of these test tubes. 2. Take a scoop...

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3 reactions of isomers

Purpose To test the reactions of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols with acid and with an oxidizing agent. Materials chemical safety goggles lab apron protective gloves test-tube rack eyedropper dropper bottles containing butan-1-ol butan-2-ol 2-methylpropan-2-ol potassium permanganate solution, KMnO4 (aq) (0.01 mol/L) concentrated hydrochloric acid, HCl (aq) (12 mol/L) (for teacher use only) Procedure 1) Put on your safety goggles, apron, and protective gloves. ...

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Conservation of mass lab

exactly the same proportion of elements by mass. For example, if oxygen makes up 8/9 of the mass of pure water, then hydrogen must make up the remaining 1/9 of the mass (2). We used two main substances in this lab, zinc (Zn) and hydrochloric acid (HCI). Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless, highly pungent compound which is composed of a hydrogen atom and a chorine atom. It is highly corrosive and is known to break down many metals including aluminum, zinc, calcium, magnesium, and iron to generate...

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Pchem Formal Report

Synopsis: The main aim of the experiment is to find out the amount of calcium carbonate in toothpaste through back titration since calcium carbonate does not dissolve in water. A roughly weighed amount of calcium carbonate is mixed with hydrochloric acid and then titrated against sodium hydroxide. When the indicator turns from pink to orange, the volume of sodium hydroxide used is taken down. After doing some calculations, the average percentage of calcium carbonate in toothpaste is 19.2%. This...

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Testing the Ph of a Food Preservative

when Sodium Benzoate is acidified to Benzoic Acid. Theory: (2 points) Sodium Benzoate is a common food preservative found in jellies, jams, sodas, fruit juices, etc... Its acid, Benzoic Acid, is an organic preservative that stops the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. Reaction: (3 points) Reaction: sodium benzoate + hydrochloric acid ( benzoic acid + sodium chloride Amounts: 2.00 g Sodium benzoate, 5.0 mL 3M hydrochloric acid ...

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Composition of calcium carbonate in egg shell

carbonate in egg shell Equipment: Pestel Mortar Conical flask Egg shell Measuring cylinder Balance Hydrochloric acid (1 mol/dm cube) Sodium hydroxide (1 mol/ dm cube) Pipette Burette Clamp Beaker Phenolphthalein Safety: Wear eye goggle during an experiment because of the strong hydrochloric acid In case, if there is an acid contact your skin, quickly wash your skin with water Pour acid on body level so it does not interact with you face Independence variable: Mass of egg shell: we...

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Design Lab Chemistry Surface Area

Design Lab #17: Reaction Rate - Calcium Carbonate & Hydrochloric acid Design D: Introduction: In this experiment calcium carbonate will be put into a flask and mixed with hydrochloric acid to produce calcium chloride, water and carbon dioxide. The formula for this reaction is: CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine how the surface area of CaCO3(s) affects the rate of...

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Preparation of T-Butyl-Chloride

depending on the number of alkyl substituents directly attached to the carbon bearing the halogen atom. The purpose of this laboratory experiment was to prepare t-butyl-chloride, an alkyl halide, by dissolving t-butyl alcohol in concentrated hydrochloric acid. The reaction occurs via nucleophilic substitution, in which a nucleophile replaces the leaving group in the substrate. In this case, the hydroxyl group of t-butyl alcohol is replaced by a chlorine atom. The reaction proceeds via Sn1mechanism...

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Sn1 reaction

most common type of organic reactions. SN1 reactions can be used to make a wide variety of new compounds. In this experiment, t-amyl alcohol will be converted by a SN1 mechanism to 2-chloro-2-methylbutane. Safety Precautions Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid is 12M. It will cause visible destruction of tissue upon contact. Wear eye goggles at all times during this experiment. Keep HCl away from skin, clothes, eyes. Neutralize any spilled HCl with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and wipe up immediately...

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Titration Lab Report

EXPERIMENT NO:7 ACID - BASE TITRATION Name of the student : Duru Aksoy Name of the instructor: Serenay Tarhan Güler Criteria to be evaluated: DCP and CE Introduction The purpose of this investigation is to determine the concentration of an hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution by titrating it with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution of accurately known concentration. Titration is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentration of...

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The Reaction of Iron Nails with a Copper Solution

* Step H: 1) Pour 25 mL of the 1 M hydrochloric acid into the beaker and rinse the solid by swirling the acid around in the bottom of the beaker. Caution – Hydrochloric acid is corrosive to eyes, skin and clothes. Wearing a lab apron, rubber gloves, goggles, and a face shield is essential. Rinse any spills on skin or clothing with plenty of cold water. Clean up spills immediately – ask your instructor for help. 2) Decant the hydrochloric acid from the solid and then again rinse with...

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home made circuit board

circuit board (a stick) • Hydrochloric Acid ca. 30% (Muriatic Acid) • Hydrogen Peroxide 3% (rest is distilled water) • Rubbing alcohol • Acetone or mineral spirits #Put on the goggles and gloves (non-optional!). Always remember safety first. You can easily blind yourself! #Make sure the area is well ventilated before mixing. The chemicals will produce hazardous fumes. You can loose your sense of smell! #Use a non-metallic basin. Check if it can withstand the acid using a few drops. #Gently...

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Ib Eggshell Report

Independent | Volume of titrated excess of hydrochloric aced | cm3 | Controlled | Volume of hydrochloric acid Weight of eggshell Temperature Amount of phenolophateine | cm3 g oC drop | Uncontrolled | Purity of solutions Biological diversity of eggs Pressure | - - hPa | Equipment: buret 5 beakers 50 cm3 baguette 1 plastic pipette balance clamp 2,5 g of eggshell mortar 100 cm3 of 1moldm-3 hydrochloric acid ap. 70 cm3 of 1moldm-3 sodium hydroxide 1...

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How Temperature Affects Reaction Rate

affect Reaction Rate. The experiment will be performed by heating equally sized and weighted lime stones with equal amounts and concentration of Hydrochloric acid at different temperatures. The temperatures will be 35˚C and 40˚C. We will measure the reaction rates by observing gas release of the reaction between lime stones and Hydrochloric acid. The amount of gas release at different temperatures will be compared afterwards to see if temperature can affect Reaction Rate. Hypothesis: ...

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Determining the Thickness of Zinc on a Piece of Galvanized Metal

galvanized metal. It also aimed for the students to be introduced to the reactivates of metals with acids as well as for them to develop some feeling for the size of an atom. In determining the thickness of the zinc coating on the metal, students, knowing the density of zinc, calculated the area (A) of the metal covered with zinc and the mass of zinc removed after it is reacted with HCL, hydrochloric acid. Given the radius of a zinc atom, on the other hand, students can also calculate the thickness of...

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Back Titration

experiment is to use the back titration method to determine the percentage of calcium carbonate in toothpaste. Instead of using standard titration methods where an acid is titrated directly using a standard solution of a base, back titration is used because the sample to be analysed, CaCO3 does not dissolve in water. Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide are the reagents used in this experiment. The precise measured amount of HCl is added to the weighted portion of toothpaste which is CaCO3. When...

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Pillbug Lab

Pillbug Reaction In the Presence of an Acid Abstract: This experiment was conducted to learn how regular behavior of a pillbug is affected in the presence of a substance such as hydrochloric acid. Behavior of the pill bugs was first monitored and recorded to discern how the species acts under normal conditions. The behavior was then observed and documented after the pill bugs were placed in a choice chamber with HCl and water. There was no change in activity after these substances were placed...

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Physical and Chemical Changes Chemistry Lab Report

chemical reaction, thus, of a chemical change.   Materials Crucible tongs Evaporating dish Glass rod Test tubes Test tube rack Thermometer Analytical balance Magnesium ribbon pH paper 1M copper (II) sulfate Iron metal 6M hydrochloric acid   Procedure Magnesium and oxygen test A small strip of magnesium metal is held on one end with a pair of crucible tongs, while the other end is ignited with the flame of Bunsen burner. The burning ribbon is held over a clean evaporating...

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Synthesis of Methyl Orange

orange by coupling diazotised sulphanilic acid with N,N-dimethylaniline. Materials (Chemicals) Sulfanilic acid, 2.5% aqueous sodium carbonate solution, sodium nitrite, concentrated hydrochloric acid, N,N-dimethylaniline, glacial acetic acid, 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide, saturated sodium chloride solution Apparatus 50 mL Erlemeyer flask, 250 mL beaker, test tube, hot plate, Buchner funnels Procedure In a 50 mL Elermenyer flask 1.2 g of sulfanilic acid and 12.5 mL of 2.5% aqueous sodium carbonate...

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The Element: Chlorine

hospital sanitation has made community living possible. Chlorine is used in bleaching as said before. The bleaching action of chlorine in aqueous solution is due to the formation of hypochlorous acid, a powerful oxidizing agent. If a colored, oxidizable material is present, hypochlorous acid releases its oxygen to oxidize the material to a colorless compound. Liquid bleach is usually an aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite, and dry powder bleaches contain chloride of lime. Since chlorine...

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Milk of Magnesia Titration

Chemicals Milk of Magnesia 0.2 Hydrochloric Acid (HCL) Phenolphthalein ( C2OH4O4 ) AIMS The aim of this titration was to calculate the amount of Magnesium Hydroxide (Mg OH 2) in a 5ml teaspoon of milk of magnesia and compare the result with the manufactures stated value which is 415g per 5ml suspension PROCEDURE The equipment was rinsed out in water 25ml of milk of magnesia was diluted into; 250ml of water Hydrochloric acid ( HCL ) was made up in a flask to 0...

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Determination of Na2Co3 in an Unknown.

The purpose of this was to determine the concentration of sodium carbonate in an unknown sample by titration. The solution of hydrochloric acid was prepared and standardized using Na2CO3. Observations: Week 1: Standardizing hydrochloric acid using sodium carbonate with bromocresol green indicator Table 1: Titration of sodium carbonate using hydrochloric acid Trial | Mass of Na2CO3 (g) | Burette Reading (mL) | Final Volume of HCl (mL) | | | Initial | Final | | 1 | 0.2123...

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Hess Law

heat is actually a “heat of solution” since no true chemical reaction occurs): NaOH (s) ---> Na+ (aq) OH¯ (aq)H1 2) Solid sodium hydroxide is dissolved in a hydrochloric acid solution: H+ (aq) Cl¯ (aq)NaOH (s) ---> Na+ (aq) Cl¯ (aq)O (l)H2 3) A solution of sodium hydroxide is mixed with a hydrochloric acid solution: H+ (aq) Cl¯ (aq)Na+ (aq) OH¯ (aq)---> Na+ (aq) Cl¯ (aq)O (l)H3 Objectives: - To determine the heats of reaction for several simple...

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Titration of Calcium HydroxideG

Calcium Hydroxide Titrated with Hydrochloric Acid By: Juliana Kadiasi Signature__________________________________________ (Experimental team: Ashley Tsao, Sophie Alvarez, Catherine Hering) IB Chemistry HL B3 For: Mr. Ahmed. Belmir 15 September 2014 Criteria Aspect IA IA Total Design 1. Identified Problem & relevant variables 2. Procedure controls variables 3. Procedure & relevant sufficient data Data Collection & Processing 1. Precise & accurate...

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MId-term

__potasium permanganate c) H2SO4 ____sulphuric acid______ d) H2O ______hydrogen oxide____ e) AgNO3 ____silver nitrate______ f) Sodium bicarbonate ______Na2CO3____ g) Nitric acid _________HNO3________ h) Hydrochloric acid _________HCl_______ i) Potassium dichromate _______K2CrO4____ j) Sodium hydroxide __________NaOH____ 6. Complete the following conversion factors or problems: a) 1 cm3. = __1___ mL. 1...

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VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS: DETERMINING THE RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS OF A SOLUBLE BASE.

Objective: To determine relative molecular mass of a soluble base, X2CO3 by carrying out an acid-base titration with the following reaction , knowing the amount of hydrochloric acid used and the amount of substance Z used. Hypothesis: The X in substance Z is a group 1 element because substance Z is a soluble metal carbonate and would most likely be sodium or potassium because these elements are commonly used. Materials 100 cm3 beaker, 250 cm3 beaker, 250 cm3 volumetric flask with stopper...

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The effect of molecular weight on the diffusion rate

substances ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) and were plugged at each end of the glass tube. The reaction between the gaseous molecules of the substance ammonia (NH3) from the substance ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) formed the white smoke which is the evidence of diffusion. Among the four trials of the experiment, it is clearly shown in Table 1.1 that the diffusion occurred near the cotton plug with hydrochloric acid (HCl). Table 1.1 Distance measurements...

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Flower

CONCENTRATED HYDROCHLORIC ACID ALCOHOL OBSERVATIONS Secondary butyl alcohol Tertiary butyl alcohol Q3. Classify the alcohols used in this experiment as primary, secondary or tertiary. Q4. Use your answer to question 1 and the results in Table 2 to explain how mixing an alcohol of unknown structure with Lucas. Reagent can help one to determine whether it is primary, secondary or tertiary. Q5. Write down an equation for the reaction of tertiary butyl alcohol with concentrated hydrochloric acid...

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AQA Chemistry C2 Electrolysis

ionic substance in solution element at the negative electrode element at the positive electrode copper chloride, CuCl2 copper chlorine copper sulfate, CuSO4 copper oxygen sodium chloride, NaCl hydrogen chlorine hydrochloric acid, HCl hydrogen chlorine sulfuric acid, H2SO4 hydrogen oxygen Purification of copper Copper is a good conductor of electricity, and is used extensively to make electrical wiring and components. The extraction of copper from copper ore is done by reduction with...

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Planarian Behavior

response, negative or positive. Tap the side and surroundings of the dish to notice if there is any different adjustment in movement. Add sound to surrounding, noting any alter. Obtain a second sample, labeled separately, and use one dish to apply Hydrochloric Acid and the other to salt (NaCl) water. Note: Only using minimal amount or as needed. Using the tools provided, cut an individual in half to discover if the subject dies or survives. In conclusion, the Planarian makes it choice by moving towards...

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copy work

teacher. P2i You will now use your standard solution to calculate the strength of a sample of HCl (Hydrochloric Acid). Procedure… 1. Rinse all equipment with distilled water 2. Using a pipette add 25 cm3 of Na2CO3 to a conical flask 3. Add 3 or 4 drops of phenolphthalein. The solution will turn pink. 4. Fill the burette with Hydrochloric acid. 5. Add acid to the alkali, note how much acid is needed to neutralise the sodium carbonate, the solution will turn clear (to the nearest 1cm3) 6...

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The Effect of Molecular Weight on the Diffusion Rate of Substances

ABSTRACT The effect of molecular weight on the rate of diffusion of substances is tested using two tests: the glass tube test and the agar-water gel test. In the glass tube test, two cotton balls were soaked in two different substances, one in hydrochloric acid (HCl) and the other one in ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH). The cotton balls were inserted into the two ends of the tube at the same time. After some time, a white smoke was observed to evolve nearer the cotton ball soaked in HCl. This indicated that...

Free Diffusion, Hydrochloric acid, Molecular diffusion 1533  Words | 5  Pages

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Flame Test Experiment

Method 1. Clean a platinum or nichrome wire by dipping it into concentrated hydrochloric acid. 2. Hold the platinum or nichrome wire at the hottest or blue part of a non-luminous Bunsen flame. 3. Repeat until the wire does not produce any colour in the flame (note: do not touch the wire, as salt in sweat will produce an intense sodium flame). 4. Once achieved, dip the nichrome wire in concentrated hydrochloric acid, and then dip it into a small amount of the unknown solid (or solution) to...

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6.03 Calorimtery Honors

II The Reaction of Sodium Hydroxide Solution with Hydrochloric Acid Procedure: 1. Measure out approximately 100 mL of 0.50 M hydrochloric acid solution and 100 mL of 0.50 M sodium hydroxide solution. Record both volumes on your data table. 2. Pour the hydrochloric acid solution into the calorimeter. Measure and record the initial temperature of each solution and record on your data table. 3. Add the sodium hydroxide solution to the acid solution in the calorimeter and immediately replace...

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Physical and Chemical Change Lab

separate test tubes. Add 10 drops of 6M hydrochloric acid to each test tube. Feel the bottom of each test tube and record your answer. 11. Put half of the sucrose sample into a test tube. Caution: Be sure tube is cool before handling it. After test tube is cool, use a spatula to scrape residue and clean test tube. Examine residue and test its solubility in water. 12. Transfer sodium hydrogen carbonate sample to test tube. Add 5 drops of 6M hydrochloric acid. Touch tube at bottom with hand and...

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06 Williamson Ether

is methylphenoxyacetic acid, a phenolic ether that is prepared from a methylphenol (cresol) and chloroacetic acid. The methylphenoxyacetic acid family is of interest for several reasons: 1) The products are easily prepared crystalline solids, which serve as solid derivatives whose melting points can be used to identify the liquid phenol starting materials. 2) Several well-known herbicides are members of this class of compounds, especially 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic...

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Chem Lab

halide, 2-chloro-2-methylbutane by reacting 2-methyl -2-butanol (t-amyl alcohol) with hydrochloric acid. Alkyl halides are of wide interest because they are widespread and have diverse beneficial and detrimental impacts .The overall reaction is given below: Procedure 1 ml of 2-methyl-2-butanol was measured using 1 ml syringe and transferred into a 5 ml conical vial. 2.5 ml of highly concentrated Hydrochloric acid was then slowly added while the vial was constantly swirled. After mixing alcohol with...

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Forming Methyl Orange an Azo Die

Abstract: An synthetic azo dye was created by reaction of diazonium salt with N,N-Dimethylanaline. The final product created was 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4-sulfonic acid, an orange clay-like substance. Sulfanilic acid was chemically manipulated by using sodium carbonate followed by cooled sodium nitrate and hydrochloric acid to form the diazonium salt used in the reaction. The products were washed in ethanol. The product was obtained at an 84% yield and was characterized by its physical attributes...

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chem lab 3

Did you observer any chemical changes in this experiment? Yes What evidence did you use to decide that something was a chemical change? I observed during the application of the hydrochloric acid to some of the substances bubbling, and smoking Give at least two examples of chemical changes you observed. Green changed from blue to application of HCL to Mg smoking and bubbling and CuCO3 Classify the following properties of sodium...

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Measuring the Solubility Product of Ca OH 2

Measuring the Solubility Product of Ca(OH)­2 Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to find the solubility product (Ksp) of Ca(OH)2 by titrating the hydrochloric acid with calcium hydroxide and using their entities to find the concentration of Ca­2+ and OH- ions. Materials: Refer to lab sheet “Measuring the Solubility of Ca(OH)2” (handout) Method (Procedure): Refer to lab sheet “Measuring the Solubility of Ca(OH)2” (handout) Observations Trial 1 Trial 2 Initial burette reading 0mL 17.75mL...

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