Prehistory and indigenous civilizations
Further information: History of the Philippines (until 1521), Kingdom of Maynila, Kingdom of Namayan, and Kingdom of Tondo Under the Malay aristocracy, the city was known Seludong/Selurung, which was the same name given for the general region of southwestern Luzon at that time, suggesting that it was the capital of Ancient Tondo. It was also known as Gintu ("The Land/Island of Gold") or Suvarnadvipa by its neighbors. The said kingdom flourished during the latter half of the Ming Dynasty as a result of trade relations with China. Ancient Tondo has always been the traditional capital of the empire. Its rulers were equivalents to kings and not mere chieftains, and they were addressed aspanginuan or panginoon ("lords"), anak banwa ("son of heaven") or lakandula ("lord of the palace"). Well into the 13th century, the city consisted of a fortified settlement and trading quarter at the bay of the Pasig River, on top of previous older towns. Rise of the Kingdom of Luzon
Main article: Kingdom of Tondo
In the year 900, the Kingdom of Luzon which is otherwise known as the Dynasty of Tondo centered in Manila Bay flourished via an active trade with Chinese sea traders in the area. Later serving as a smuggling nexus after the Chinese imposed restrictions on their foreign trade. During this time, the lord-minister Jayadewa presented a document of debt forgiveness to Lady Angkatan and her brother Bukah, the children of Namwaran. This is described in the Philippine's oldest known document the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. This inscription shows the possible link between the ancient Philippines with Medang Kingdom of Java. As a province of Majapahit
In 14th century there is evidence of Manila being a province of the Indonesian Hindu empire of Majapahit, due to the epic eulogy poem Nagarakretagama which was dedicated to Maharaja Hayam Wuruk. Saludong or Selurong which is a historical name for the City of Manila is listed in...
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