How to Improve Spoken English

Topics: English language, Language acquisition, Linguistics Pages: 21 (6868 words) Published: August 23, 2013
how How to Improve Your Spoken English
Advice for Struggling Students

Written by F.J. Noonan

How to Improve Your Spoken English

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................ 3 Aptitude ................................................................................................ 3 Motivation .............................................................................................. 3 More than Diligence .............................................................................. 5 COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT .......................................................................... 7 A Brief History of Linguistic Theory ..................................................... 7 Listening ................................................................................................. 8 Gaining Access to Comprehensible Input ............................................ 9 Strategies ............................................................................................... 11 THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION .............................................................. 13 Why is Communication Helpful? .......................................................... 13 Whom Will I Speak With? ..................................................................... 14 Finding Opportunities to Interact ……………………………………….. 15 Strategies ............................................................................................... 16 Saving Face ............................................................................................ 17 LEARNING GRAMMAR .................................................................................. 18 Tips for Grammar Study ....................................................................... 19 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................. 20 REFERENCES ................................................................................................. 21

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How to Improve Your Spoken English

INTRODUCTION Every college student in China seems to be studying English. I see them listening to radio programs on their dormitory bed, studying the dictionary in the back of the classroom, and completing grammar exercises in the cafeteria. But still, these same students come to me and ask the same question: “Teacher . . . my spoken English is very poor. How to improve my spoken English?” This short book is my answer to their question. This book will reference modern research, but it is not a book for scholars. This book will contain information that will benefit English teachers, but it is not a book for teachers. This is a book for you, the student. In my reading, much of the literature concerning language acquisition theory and research are designed for teachers. This is great for teachers. And I’m sure many students have benefited from this if their teachers have read them. However, I believe students should not be dependent solely on the ability of the teacher. I desire to give knowledge to the students themselves so that you will be empowered to take charge of your own learning. This knowledge is not given so that you can criticize your teachers. No matter who your teacher is; no matter what he does in the classroom, you can learn from him. My hope is that you will eagerly learn from whatever type of instruction you receive in the classroom, and then use this knowledge to guide your self-study efforts outside of the classroom. Aptitude First, let me be frank. There is no magic formula to become a fluent speaker of any language. One of the reasons this is so is that each individual is unique. Students learn differently. Moreover, just as some students are better at basketball or math than other students, some students are better at studying foreign...

References: Batstone, Rob. (1996). Key Concepts in ELT: Noticing. ELT Journal, Volume 50/3, 8 paragraphs. Available: http://www3.oup.co.uk/eltj/hdb/Volume_50/Issue_03/freepdf/500273.pdf Brook, Andrew and Edina Torlakovic. The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Acquisition. 40 paragraphs. Available: http://www.cognitivesciencesociety.org/confproc/gmu02/final_ind_files/torlako vic_brook.pdf Brown, James Dean. (2001). Using Surveys in Language Programs. UK: Cambridge University Press. Cross, Jeremy. (December 2002) ‘Noticing’ in SLA: Is it a Valid Concept? TESL-EJ. Vol. 6, No.3. Available: http://www-writing.berkeley.edu/TESLEJ/ej23/a2.html Ellis, Rod. Options in Grammar Teaching (Speech Notes). Available: http://www.tki.org.nz/r/esol/esolonline/teachers/prof_read/rod_ellis_e.php Ellis, Rod. (2001). Second Language Acquisition: The Role of Consciousness. Lecture given at National Chengchi University, Taiwan. Available: http://english.nccu.edu.tw/academic/RodEllis/Lect1.doc Ellis, Rod. (2002). The Place of Grammar Instruction in the Second/Foreign Language Curriculum. In Fotos, Sandra and Eli Hinkel (Eds.), New Perspectives on Grammar Teaching in Second Language Classrooms (pp. 1734). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Ellis, Rod. (1997). Second Language Acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press. Gan, Zhengdong, Gillian Humphreys, and Liz Hampton-Lyons. (2004). “Understanding Successful and Unsuccessful EFL Students in Chinese Universities.” The Modern Language Journal. Vol 88, no 2.
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How to Improve Your Spoken English
Hadley, Alice Omaggio. (1993). Teaching Language in Context. USA: Heinle & Heinle Publishers. Krashen, Stephen. (2002). “The Comprehension Hypothesis and Its Rivals.” Selected papers from the International Symposium on English Language Teaching/Fourth Pan-Asian Conference. Taipei: Crane Publishing Company. Available: http://www.azusausd.k12.ca.us/bilingual/pdf%5CKrashen89.pdf Krashen, Stephen. (1985). The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. New York: Longman Press.
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Krashen, Stephen. (1981). Second Language Acquisition and Second Pergamon Press. Also available on-line: http://www.sdkrashen.com/SL_Acquisition_and_Learning/index.html
Mitchell, Rosamond and Florence Myles. (1998). Second Language Learning Theories. Great Britain: Oxford University Press. Norris-Holt, Jacqueline. (2001). Motivation as a Contributing Factor in Second Language Acquisition. The Internet TESL Journal. Vol. VII, No. 6. Available: http://iteslj.org/Articles/Norris-Motivation.html Richard-Amato, Patricia. (1996). Making It Happen: Interaction in the Second Language Classroom. White Plains, NY: Addison-Wesley Publishing Group. Sysoyev, Pavel V. (1999). Integrative L2 Grammar Teaching: Exploration, Explanation and Expression. The Internet TESL Journal. Vol. V, No. 6. Available: http://iteslj.org/Articles/Sysoyev-Integrative.html
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