Employee Engagement Shemes

Topics: Employment, Organizational studies and human resource management, Job satisfaction Pages: 91 (23484 words) Published: September 16, 2013

1.1 Concept of employee engagement

1.1.1 Defining Engagement

One of the challenges of defining engagement is the lack of a universal definition of employee engagement, as a research focus on employees’ work engagement is relatively new.

More often than not, definitions of engagement include cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components. The cognitive aspect of engagement includes employees’ beliefs about the organization, management and working conditions. The emotional components (or beliefs) defines employees positive attitude, how they "feel" about their employer, company’s values, leaders and working conditions (Kahn, 1990; Towers Perrin, 2003; Robinson et al. 2004). The behavioral components measure the willingness to act in certain ways, skills which employees offer (Towers Perrin, 2003) and willingness to go the "extra mile” — some of these components are often used for the employee engagement definition.

Academic literature presents a couple of definitions of engagement. One of the first and most recognizable definitions of engagement is provided by Kahn (1990) and it suggests that personal engagement is: “the harnessing of organization members’ selves to their work roles; in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performance (p.694)”. His view concentrates on the personal engagement of workers in order to emphasize performance improvement through employing and expressing themselves on physical, cognitive and emotional levels during their performance. In the case of disengagement employees withdraw from role performance and try to defend themselves physically, cognitively or emotionally (Kahn, 1990). In summary, following Kahn (1990), engagement means the employees’ psychological presence at work.

Burnout researchers suggest that engagement is the opposite, a positive antitheses of burnout (Maslach et al. 2001). Maslach et al. (2001) state that “engagement is characterized by energy, involvement, and efficacy (p.416)”, the direct opposite of the three burnout dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and ineffectiveness.

Schaufeli et al. (2002), present work engagement as contrastive concept to burnout, they define work engagement “as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption (p. 74)”. They also state that engagement is not a momentary and specific state, but it is “a more persistent and pervasive affective-cognitive state that is not focused on any particular object, event, individual, or behavior” (Schaufeli et al., 2002, p. 74).

In his research Harter et al. (2002) referred to employee engagement as “the individuals’ involvement and satisfaction with as well as enthusiasm for work” (p. 269).

Three well-known organizations in the human resource area also offer definitions on the term. Perrin’s Global Workforce Study (Towers Perrin, 2003) definition defines engagement “as employees’ willingness and ability to contribute to company success”, by putting “discretionary effort into their work, in the form of extra time, brainpower and energy (p.1)”. Gallup organization defines employee engagement as the involvement with and enthusiasm for work. Gallup as cited by Dernovsek (2008) likens employee engagement to a positive employees’ emotional attachment and employees’ commitment. Institute of employment studies (Robinson et al. 2004) defines employee engagement as “a positive attitude held by the employee towards the organization and its value. An engaged employee is aware of business context, and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organization. The organization must work to develop and nurture engagement, which requires a two-way relationship between employer and employee” (p.9).

After the process of synthesizing definitions and conceptual frameworks of employee engagement, Shuck and Wollard...

References: AbuKhalifeh Nimer Alaa, Ahmad Puad Mat Som (2013),” The Antecedents Affecting Employee Engagement and Organizational Performance”,  Vol 9, No 7 ,pp 41
Abraham, S., 2012
Aktouf, O., 1992. Management and theories of organizations in the 1990s: Toward a critical radical humanism. Academy of Management Review, 17, pp. 407–431.
Attridge, M., 2009. Measuring and Managing Employee Work Engagement: A Review of the Research and Business Literature. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 24(4), pp. 383 – 398.
Bakker, A. and Schaufeli, W., 2008. Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, pp.147–154
Bakker, A.B
Bakker, A.B. and Demerouti, E., 2008. Towards a model of work engagement. Career Development International, 13(3), pp.209–223.
Bakker, A.B. and Leiter M.P., 2010. Work engagement: a handbook of essential theory and research. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Bakker, A.B., Hakanen, J.J., Demerouti, E. and Xanthopoulou, D., 2007. Job resources boost work engagement, particularly when job demands are high. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(2), pp. 274-284.
Balain S. and Sparrow P., 2009. Engaged to Perform: A new perspective on employee engagement: Executive Summary. Lancaster University Management School.
Barsade, S., 2002. ‘The ripple effect: emotional contagion and its influence on group behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47, pp. 644-77.
Binder, C. (1998). The Six Boxes™: A descendent of Gilbert’s Behavioral Engineering Model. Performance Improvement, 37(6), 48-52. 
Blumberg B., Cooper, D.R
Bright, L., 2010. Why Age Matters in the Work Preferences of Public Employees: A Comparison of Three Age-Related Explanations. Public Personnel Management, 39(1), pp.1-14.
Britt, T.W., Adler, A.B. and Bartone, P.T., 2001. Deriving benefits from stressful events: The role of engagement in meaningful work and hardiness. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6(1), pp. 53-63.
Buchanan, D., 1979. The Development of Job Design Theories and Techniques. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Cartwright, S. and Holmes, N., 2006. The meaning of work: the challenge of regaining employee engagement and reducing cynicism. Human Resource Management Review, 16, pp. 199–208.
Corporate Leadership Council, 2002. Building the High-Performance Workforce A Quantitative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Performance Management Strategies,
Washington ,DC
Creswell, J.W., 2009. Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Demerouti, Evangelia; Mostert, Karina; Bakker, Arnold B.( Jul 2010),”Journal of Occupational Health Psychology”, Vol 15(3), ,209-222.
Denscombe, M., 2001. The good research guide: for small-scale social research projects. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Dernovsek, D., 2008. Engaged Employees. Credit Union Magazine, 74(5), pp. 42.
DeRue, D.S. and Morgeson, F.P., 2007. Stability and change in person-team and person-role fit over time: The effects of growth satisfaction, performance, and general self-efficacy. Journal of Applied Psychology. 92(5), pp. 1242-1253.
Flick, U., 2008. Designing Qualitative Research. [e-book] London : SAGE Publications, Limited, Thousand Oaks.
Fredrickson, B.L. and Joiner, T., 2002. Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science, 13, pp. 172-175.
Fredrickson, B.L., 2001. The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist,56, pp. 218-226.
Gallup, 2010, Employee engagement. What is your ration?
George, J
Ghauri, P. and Grønhaug, K., 2006. Research methods in business studies: a practical guide. 3rd ed. London: Ft Prentice Hall.
Graen G.B., 2008. Enriched engagement through assistance to systems’ change: a proposal. Industrial and Organisational Psychology, 1, pp. 74–75.
Gravenkemper, S., 2007. Building Community in Organizations: Principles of Engagement. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(3), pp. 203-208.
Greenberg, J., 1990. Organizational justice: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Journal of Management, 16, pp. 399-432.
Hackman, J.R. and Oldham, G.R., 1980. Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.
Hakanen, J., Bakker, A.B. and Schaufeli, W.B., 2006. Burnout and work engagement among teachers. The Journal of School Psychology, 43, pp. 495-513.
Hallberg, Ulrika E.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.(2006),”European Psychologist”, Vol 11(2),119-127.
Hallam G.L., 1996. The adventures of team fantastic: a practical guide for team leaders and members. [e-book] Greensboro, N.C.: Center for Creative Leadership.
Hallberg U.E
Harter, J.K., Schmidt, F.L. and Hayes, T.L., 2002. Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, pp.268-279.
Heintzman R. and Marson B., 2005. People, service and trust: Links in a public sector service value chain. International Review of Administrative Studies, 7(4), pp. 549-575.
Hermsen, J. and Rosser, V., 2008. Examining Work Engagement and Job Satisfaction of Staff Members in Higher Education. CUPA-HR Journal . 59(2), pp. 10-18.
Igbaria, M. and Buimaraes, T., 1993. Antecedents and consequences of job satisfaction among information center employees. Journal of Management Information Systems, 9(4), pp.145–175.
Johnsrud, L.K. and Rosser, V.J., 1999. College and University Midlevel Administrators: Explaining and Improving Their Morale. The Review of Higher Education, 22(2), pp. 121-141.
Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692-724.
Kahn, W., 1990. Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33, pp. 692-724.
Kahn, W., 1992. To be full there: psychological presence at work. Human Relations, 45, pp. 321-49.
Kanuk and Berenson, Mail surveys, p.450 Reprinted from the Journal of Marketing Research, published by the American Marketing Association, in B. Blumberg, D.R. Cooper, P.S. Schindler, 2005. Business research methods. London: McGraw-Hill.
Karsan. R., 2011. Engaging and aligning employees. Training Journal, p.52-55
Koyuncu, M., Burke, R.J
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay about Employee Engagement
  • Essay on Employee Engagement
  • Employee Engagement Projects Essay
  • Employee Engagement Essay
  • Employee Engagement Essay
  • Essay about Employee Engagement
  • Employee Engagement Essay
  • Employee Satisfaction Vs. Employee Engagement Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free