Psychology & Scientific Thinking
Terms Ch. 1
Psychology- Scientific study of mind, brain and behavior
Levels of Analysis- Learned fears and expectations. Brain structures, thoughts, feelings, and emotions. Multiply determined- Caused by many factors
Individual differences- Variations among people in thinking, emotion, personality, and behavior (everyone responds to every situation differently) Naive realism- Belief that we see the world as it is “seeing is believing” Scientific Theory- Explanation for large numbers of findings in the world. Hypothesis- Testable prediction
Conformation Biased- Tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypothesis and deny evidence that contradicts. Belief Perseverance- Tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts. Metaphysical claim- Assertion about the world that is not testable (existence of God can’t be completely proven). Pseudoscience- Set of claims that seems scientific but isn’t (Ghost, nonexistent, and astrology) Ad hoc immunizing hypothesis- A loophole that defenders a theory use to protect their theory from falsification ( reading others’ mind or forecasting the future and failed to perform when brought into a lab. Patternicity- Detect meaningful patterns in random stimuli (when eating a certain food and getting sick than relating sickness to food, which may have no connection) Terror management Theory- Theory proposing that our awareness of our death us with the underlying sense of terror with which we cope by adopting reassuring cultural worldviews. Emotional reassuring fallacy- Error of using our emotions as guidelines for evaluating a right of claim. (The idea that daycare might have a negative emotional effects on children gets one upset, so they refuse to believe it) Bandwagon Fallacy- Assuming a claim is correct because others believe it. Not me Fallacy- Believing were immune from errors in thinking that afflict other people. “Being certain a claim is right- and...
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