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Psychology 105

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Psychology 105
Psychological Questions: nature / nurture
• What does intelligence define?
• Why do we dream
• Can babies think?
• In what ways are all humans alike?
Psych:
• The scientific study of behaviors & mental processes o Bridges natural and social science
Behavior: anything an organism does
Mental Processes mental subjective experiences that we infer from experience o Evaluation of ideas.
8 psychological perspectives:
• Neural Explanations: increase/decrease w/ neurons in the brain
• Genetic explanations: examining anger with genetic similarities
• Evolutionary Explanations: survival benefits
• Learning explanations: patterns: road rage
• Cognitive explanations: interpretation of a situation (thinking/judgment)
• Social explanations: influence of others
• Cultural explanations: varying across cultures
• Developmental explanation: physical maturation, age related change
Cognitive/Social Psychology

Pysch as a Profession:
• Basic vs. Applied Research
• Basic: pure science
• Applied: aims at solving practical/social problems
• increase scientific knowledge base
• Psychiatry: medical treatment and therapy
• Clinical Psychology: study/assess treat psychological disorders
• Counseling psychology: assisting people (community situation)
• Academic Psychology: not at all clinical
Psych as a science:
• What do you mean and how do you know? – evidence
Theory: idea/conceptual model
• Explains existing facts/ makes predictions
Hypothesis: what you’re looking for (testable prediction)
Operational definition: statement of procedures used to define research variables
• Provides a clear line/definition of what certain results mean
Replication: repeating the essence of a research study ( do those basic findings extend to others)
Tools of Psychology
• Case studies: 1 or few people studied in depth
• Surveys: self-reported attitudes or behaviors (representative, random sample)
• Naturalistic observation: watching and recording behavior in anatural

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