Psychology Vocab. Words chapter 1
Psychology p.3: science of behavior and mental processes
Bias p.5: beliefs that interfere with objectivity
Law of Parsimony p.6: principle that simple explanations of phenomena are preferred to complex explanations Placebo Effect p.8: in drug research, positive effects associated with a person’s beliefs and attitudes about the drug, even when it contains no active ingredients. Scientific Method p.10: system of investigation in which a person makes a careful observation of a phenomenon, proposes theories to explain the phenomenon, makes hypotheses about future behaviors, and then tests these hypotheses through more research. Theory p.11: explanation for a phenomenon based on careful and precise observation. Hypothesis p.11: prediction about future behaviors that is derived from observation and theories. Case Study p.11: in-depth study of a single person that can often provide suggestions for further research. Naturalistic Observation p.11: study of behavior in its typical setting, with no attempt to alter it. Scatter plot p.12: graph that depicts the relation between two variables. Correlation Coefficient p.12: number ranging between -1.00 and +1.00 that represents the degree and direction of relation between two variables. Survey Method p.14: research method that involves collecting information from a selected group of people who are representative of a larger group. Representative Sample p.14: sample selected so that it reflects the characteristics of a population of interest to the researcher. Qualitative Research p.15: a holistic research method that seeks to provide a complete narrative description of an entire phenomenon or culture. Experimental Method p.16: research method that involves manipulating independent variables to determine how they affect dependant variables Independent Variable p.16: variable manipulated by a researcher to determine its effects on a dependent variable. Dependent Variable p.16: variable that shows the outcome of an experiment by revealing the effects of an independent variable. Operational Definition p.16: a careful and precise definition that allows other researchers to repeat an experiment. Experimental Group p.16: the group in an experiment that receives the effect of the independent variable being manipulated. Control Group p.16: a comparison group in an experiment that does not receive the effect of the independent variable being manipulated. Extraneous Variables p.18: variables, other than the independent variable, that can influence the outcome of an experiment. Random Assignment p.18: assignment of experimental participants to two or more groups on the basis of chance. Statistics p.19: branch of mathematics that involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. Descriptive Statistics p.19: procedures used to summarize any set of data. Inferential Statistics p.19: procedures used to analyze data after an experiment is completed; used to determine if the independent variable has a significant effect. Measures of Central Tendency p.20: descriptive measures of a set of data that tell us about a typical score. Measures of Variability p.20: descriptive measures that tell us about the amount of variability or spread in a set of data. Informed consent p.21: written document in which a person who might be involved in a research study agrees to participate after receiving information about the researcher’s specific procedures. Debriefing p.21: procedure during which a complete explanation of research that has involved deception is provided to participant. Structuralism p.24: earliest approach in modern psychology, associated with Titchener; its goal was to analyze the basic elements of conscious experience. Introspection p.24: structural psychologists’ major method, in which participants reported the contents of their conscious experiences. Cognitive Psychology p.24: study of higher mental processes, such as thinking, knowing, and...
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