psych 101 final essay

Topics: Middle age, Old age, Puberty Pages: 7 (2032 words) Published: October 31, 2014

Please select and answer comprehensively any five (5) questions. The final exam covers Chapters 11-19 of Development through the Lifespan. Supplemental professional journal articles can also be used to support your answers. Each answer should be roughly two (2) type-written pages double-spaced (500 words). Font type should be Times New Roman 12. 1. Describe the major hormonal changes that occur during adolescence. Describe girls’ reactions to menarche and boys’ reactions to spermarche during puberty. What factors influence the way adolescents respond? Describe the impact of puberty on parent–child interaction and the adaptive value of this change in adolescents’ relationships with their parents. Puberty is the time in which a child's sexual and physical characteristics mature. It occurs due to hormonal changes. Adolescence is the period between puberty and adulthood. The exact age a child enters puberty depends on a number of different things, such as genes, nutrition, and gender. During puberty, endocrine glands produce hormones that cause body changes and the development of secondary sex characteristics. In girls, the ovaries begin to increase production of estrogen and other female hormones. In boys, the testicles increase production of testosterone. The adrenal glands produce hormones that cause increased armpit sweating, body odor, acne, and armpit and pubic hair. This process is called adrenarche. Menarche, the onset of menstrual periods, occurs midway through puberty. Most girls reach menarche in their 12th year. The menstrual cycle is regulated by a feedback loop involving the ovaries, the anterior pituitary, and the hypothalamus. In boys, the presence of testosterone and other hormones stimulates the testes to produce sperm. Most boys experience spermarche, the first ejaculation of seminal fluid, by mid-adolescence. Adolescents who have a warm and loving relationship with their parents experience fewer emotional or behavioral problems during puberty. For most adolescents, however, closeness with parents temporarily decreases and conflict increases. Research suggests that ethnicity and culture may play a role. Girls often feel anxious or scared during their first menstruation and may be afraid to approach their parent at first. Its not something that has ever happened to them before, but mothers will usually discuss what is going to happen with their daughters before the time comes. A female might have negative feelings about dealing with her menstrual cycle if her mother, or caregiver is not there as a support system during this time. It is also very important because due to hormones, this can be a very emotional time. I think for boys experiencing spermarche, it is less uncomfortable, because they probably dont even tell their parent.

2. Discuss some preventative measures adults can take to avoid or slow the progress of cardiovascular disease. Explain the combined gender–racial bias that is especially dangerous for African-American women with heart disease. Heart disease, is a leading cause of death among adults. There are things that we can do to improve our health and decrease our risk. Smoking or using tobacco of any kind is one of the most significant risk factors for developing heart disease. Chemicals in tobacco can damage your heart and blood vessels, leading to narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis). Atherosclerosis can ultimately lead to a heart attack. Carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke replaces some of the oxygen in your blood. This increases your blood pressure and heart rate by forcing your heart to work harder to supply enough oxygen. Women who smoke and take birth control pills are at greater risk of having a heart attack or stroke than are those who don't do either because both smoking and taking birth control pills increase the risk of blood clots. When it comes to heart disease prevention, no amount of smoking is safe. But, the more you smoke,...
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