h Human Resource Management
| Explain the scope of and functions of Human Resource Management (HRM). Ans :Scope of Human Resource Management The scope of HRM is wide and far-reaching. An understanding of HRM is important to anyone who is employed in an organisation. HR issues become important wherever there is a group of workers. Staffing is performed by all the managers as a managerial function, either directly or indirectly through HR department. All managers are, in this way, HR managers, since they get involved in HR activities such as selecting, training, inducting, compensating and motivating the employees along with industrial relations activities. We may classify the scope of HRM under the following heads: HRM in personnel management – This is typically direct manpower management that involves manpower planning, hiring (recruitment and selection), training and development, induction and orientation, transfer, promotion, compensation, layoff and retrenchment, and employee productivity. The overall objective is to ascertain individual growth, development and effectiveness which indirectly contribute to organisational development. It also includes performance appraisal, developing new skills, disbursement of wages, incentives, allowances, travelling policies and procedures, and other related courses of actions. HRM in employee welfare – This particular aspect of HRM deals with working conditions and amenities at the workplace. This includes a wide array of responsibilities and services such as safety services, health services, welfare funds, social security and medical services. It also covers appointment of safety officers, making the environment conducive for working, eliminating workplace hazards, support by top management, job safety, safeguarding machinery, cleanliness, proper ventilation and lighting, sanitation, medical care, sickness benefits, employment injury benefits, personal injury benefits, maternity benefits, unemployment benefits and family benefits. It also relates to supervision, employee counselling, establishing harmonious relationships with employees, education and training. Employee welfare is about determining employees’ real needs and fulfilling them with active participation of both the management and the employees. In addition to this, it also takes care of canteen facilities, crèches, rest and lunch rooms, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, health and safety, recreation facilities, etc.
| Define wage and salary. Wages and salariesIn the national accounts, in accordance with the System of National Accounts, wages and salaries include the values of any social contributions, income taxes, etc., payable by the employee even if they are actually withheld by the employer for administrative convenience or other reasons and paid directly to social insurance schemes, tax authorities, etc., on behalf of the employee. Wages and salaries may be paid in various ways, including goods or services provided to employees for remuneration in kind instead of, or in addition to, remuneration in cash (SNA 7.32-7.42).Wages and salaries in cash consist of wages or salaries payable at regular weekly, monthly or other intervals, including payments by results and piecework payments; plus allowances such as those for working overtime; plus amounts paid to employees away from work for short periods (e.g., on holiday); plus ad hoc bonuses and similar payments; plus commissions, gratuities and tips received by employees.Wages and salaries in kind consist of remuneration in the form of goods and/or services that are not necessary for work and can be used by employees in their own time, and at their own discretion, for the satisfaction of their own needs or wants or those of other members of their households.(b)What are the factors for effective wage administration? Ans:Wage and Salary Administration The term compensation management, or alternatively, wage and salary...
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