Women Discrimination

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Table of Contents
Introduction to Women Discrimination3
Laws Prohibiting Discrimination against Women4
Women Discrimination Phenomena’s4
Lower Pay4
Managerial Positions4
Pregnancy5
Sameness-Difference Theory5
Case Regarding Women Discrimination5
Donnicia Venters, Woman Fired For Lactation: Judge Says Not Sex Discrimination6

Introduction to Women Discrimination

For decades, the status of women in the workplace has been debated everywhere from the boardroom to the courtroom. Working women are sometimes subjected to bias because of sex, in spite of numerous laws and regulations that prohibit employment discrimination targeting women. Court cases from district courts all the way to U.S. Supreme Court cases render decisions based on discriminatory employment practices against women and other protected groups in the workplace.

Historically, women were relegated to office support and administrative positions such as clerk typists, secretaries and administrative assistants. Employers who engaged in unfair hiring practices attempted to justify making discriminatory hiring decisions for several reasons. Some employers believed women lacked the skills and qualifications necessary to perform nontraditional and higher-paid positions simply because of gender. Other employers who hired or promoted women into supervisory or management positions prevented those women from attaining higher-level roles, which is referred to as the "glass ceiling." The glass ceiling is a metaphor used to describe a barrier where the targeted group--in this case, women--can see the higher rungs on a career ladder but are prevented from attaining more responsible and influential positions due to discrimination based on sex and business decisions that convey the message that men are more suited to leadership roles. This is evidenced by a study in 2003 conducted by University of California-Hayward professor Dr. Richard Drogin who discovered "women make up 72 % of Wal-Mart's total workforce, but only 33 % of its managers."

Laws Prohibiting Discrimination against Women

There are many anti-discrimination laws enforced by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, as well as each state and local Fair Employment Practices Agency. The earliest laws on the books prohibiting discrimination against groups of underrepresented population groups in the workforce, including women, include Equal Pay Act of 1963 and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The recently enacted Lilly Ledbetter Act of 2009 also prohibits discrimination against women, as well as older workers. The U.S. Department of Labour, Wage and Hour Divison enforces the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA), which protects persons who need time off from work to receive care for serious medical conditions, or for workers who must have time off from work to care for a family member with a serious medical condition. The reason FMLA is considered among the laws that prohibit discrimination against women because women are generally the primary caregivers in family strife and situations where personal care and attention are necessary.

Women Discrimination Phenomena’s
Lower Pay
According to a 2009 survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median income for women was 78.2 % of men's earnings, a small rise from the 77.7 % of 2008. According to the same report, in all 50 states the average wages for women was lower than for men. The only exception was Puerto Rico, where women's earnings were higher than men's earnings. Managerial Positions

Another aspect where gender dominance discrimination is evident in the workplace is the type of jobs women hold. According to a report by the United States Government Accountability Office, 49 % of workers in non-managerial positions were women, while only 40 % of managers were women. As the same report pointed out, this represents a modest improvement from the 2000 figures for women: 49% of non-managers and 39 % of managers....
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