GLASS CEILING EFFECT
In Economics, the term glass ceiling refers to situations where the advancement of a qualified person within the hierarchy of an organization is stopped at a lower level because of some form of discrimination, most commonly sexism or racism. An unofficial barrier to opportunities within an organization or company which is perceived to prevent protected classes of workers, particularly women from advancing to higher positions.
According to the Federal Class Ceiling Commission, the concept Glass Ceiling refers to “artificial barriers to the advancement of women and minorities.” The glass ceiling is the “unseen, yet unbreakable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper rungs of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements.”
David Cotter et al. defined four distinctive characteristics that must be met to conclude that a glass ceiling exists: 1."A glass ceiling inequality represents a gender or racial difference that is not explained by other job-relevant characteristics of the employee." 2."A glass ceiling inequality represents a gender or racial difference that is greater at higher levels of an outcome than at lower levels of an outcome. 3."A glass ceiling inequality represents a gender or racial inequality in the chances of advancement into higher levels, not merely the proportions of each gender or race currently at those higher levels." 4."A glass ceiling inequality represents a gender or racial inequality that increases over the course of a career."
TYPES OF GLASS CEILING BARRIERS
* Different pay for comparable work.
* Sexual, ethnic, racial, religious discrimination or harassment in the workplace. * Lack of family-friendly workplace policies (or, on the flipside, policies that discriminate against gay people, non-parents, or single parents). * Exclusion from informal networks.
* Stereotyping and preconceptions of women's roles and abilities. * Failure of senior leadership to assume accountability for women's advancement. WOMEN SURPASSING GLASS CEILING
Although there is a glass ceiling, many women recently have surpassed that hurdle. When at the top management, many women feel like outsiders. Most of the time they are the only female at that level and are surrounded by males. Many women have faced sexual harassment, wage inequality, blocked movement and gender stereotyped roles. Women are said to have different styles of leadership and management once they break the barrier. They are generalized to be more nurturing and caring in nature than men. Women’s traditional role is in the home, taking care of children, and keeping house. The stereotype of maternal leadership stems from that. Some men in senior management that do not want to see women climb the corporate ladder believe that they do not have the qualities to lead a company. Many believe that making assumptions about the way women act in a leadership position perpetuates the stereotypes that cause the glass ceiling. There are many reasons why women have been able to break the barrier. Some believe that having women on an executive board is a positive thing. The more women that are accepted into management positions, the more will get promoted to senior management and serve as role models for the younger. Younger men have also been more accepting of female superiors. ABSTRACT
The aim of the study was to find out the presence and degree of glass ceiling effect in the IT Industry and Banking Industry. It was hypothesized that the IT industry may have a higher degree of ceiling effect when compared to the banking sector.
The study was conducted on a total group of 100 female employees – 50 from BOSCH (IT Sector) and 50 from Barclays (Banking sector) respectively.
A questionnaire measuring the degree of ceiling effect was administered on each individual. The subject is seated comfortably at a table of an appropriate height and rapport is...