1.1 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY
“Bank” Everybody is well versed with the term bank. All the countries of the world are having financial institution called banks. By the word 'bank' , one immediately understand that, a bank is something which deals with aspects of deposits and giving loans and advances. Banks safeguard money and valuables and provide loans, credit, and payment services, such as checking accounts, money orders, and cashier’s checks. Banks also may offer investment and insurance products, which they were once prohibited from selling. As a variety of models for cooperation and integration among finance industries have emerged, some of the traditional distinctions between banks, insurance companies, and securities firms have diminished. In spite of these changes, banks continue to maintain and perform their primary role—accepting deposits and lending funds from these deposits. There are several types of banks, which differ in the number of services they provide and the clientele they serve. Although some of the differences between these types of banks have lessened as they begin to expand the range of products and services they offer, there are still key distinguishing traits. Commercial banks, which dominate this industry, offer a full range of services for individuals, businesses, and governments. These banks come in a wide range of sizes, from large global banks to regional and community banks. Global banks are involved in international lending and foreign currency trading, in addition to the more typical banking services. Regional banks have numerous branches and automated teller machine (ATM) locations throughout a multi-state area that provide banking services to individuals.
Banks have become more oriented toward marketing and sales. As a result, employees need to know about all types of products and services offered by banks. Community banks are based locally and offer more personal attention, which many individuals and small businesses prefer. In recent years, online banks—which provide all services entirely over the Internet—have entered the market, with some success. However, many traditional banks have also expanded to offer online banking, and some formerly Internet-only banks are opting to open branches. Technology is having a major impact on the banking industry. For example, many routine bank services that once required a teller, such as making a withdrawal or deposit, are now available through ATMs that allow people to access their accounts 24 hours a day. Also, direct deposit allows companies and governments to electronically transfer payments into various accounts. Further, debit cards, which may also use as ATM cards, instantaneously deduct money from an account when the card is swiped across a machine at a store’s cash register. Electronic banking by phone or computer allows customers to pay bills and transfer money from one account to another. Through these channels, bank customers can also access information such as account balances and statement history. Some banks have begun offering online account aggregation, which makes available in one place detailed and up-to date information on a customer’s accounts held at various institutions. Advancements in technology have also led to improvements in the ways in which banks process information. Use of check imaging, which allows banks to store photographed checks on the computer, is one such example that has been implemented by some banks.
Other types of technology have greatly impacted the lending side of banking. For example, the availability and growing use of credit scoring software allows loans to be approved in minutes, rather than days, making lending departments more efficient. Other fundamental changes are occurring in the industry as banks diversify their services to become more competitive. Many banks now offer their customers...