Chapter 19 Study Questions
1. The function of the griot in sub-Saharan African Culture was to transfer cultures through oral communication. They were often professional singers and storytellers that told oral traditions including stories, histories, epics, and other accounts. The story of Sundiata was told by the griots. 2. The introduction to bananas encouraged a fresh migratory surge. The cultivations of bananas increased the food supplies available and allowed the Bantus to expand more rapidly. The arrival of camel quickened the pace of communication and transportation across the Sahara. Camels could travel long distance without having to drink water and thus made them useful beasts of burden in an arid region. 3. Kin-based societies are governments throughout the Bantu people through family and kinship groups. Male heads of families constituted a ruling council, which decided public affairs. The best of the family heads became chiefs. These societies focused on ethnic loyalty and negotiated with only two or more villages. 4. Both Kingdom of Kongo and Kingdom of Ghana were states. The government of Kongo consisted of a king and officials who oversaw affairs and beneath the king and officials were six provinces administered by governors. Chiefs governed the local villages. They were famous for their tight centralized government. The kingdom of Ghana was famous for their trade in gold. Thus they became the most important commercial site in West Africa and became the wealthiest kingdom in Africa. 5. Islam first entered into sub-Saharan Africa due to the kings of Ghana converting to Islam. This improved relations with Muslim merchants from north Africa as well as Muslim nomads. Unlike the north Africa and southwest Africa imposing Islam forcibly on their society, the kings of Ghana let the people observe traditional religious customs. However, the faith attracted many converts, mostly people that had relations with the Muslim merchants. 6. The Mali Empire controlled and taxed almost all the trade passing through west Africa. Also, its capital attracted Muslim merchants seeking to enter the gold trade. The rulers honored Islam, which gave comfort to merchants. Mansa Musa was greatly inspired by his pilgrimage to Mecca and Islam was highly spread during his realm. After the fall of the empire, the tradition of centralized government and Islam continued to survive in the African society. 7. Kilwa was first a place where Bantu people relied mostly on fishing and engaged in little amounts of trade. Soon they started trading pottery and relied more on agriculture. By the thirteenth century, it was a thriving city trading with distant lands and mostly relying on trade. 8. Sex largely determined work roles. Mostly men worked as blacksmiths, leather tanner, or anything that required a special skill. Women enjoyed high honor compared to other societies. Sometimes, women rose to power or even engaged in combat. Age groups would usually help and provide labor for community projects. 9. During the early ninth century, slaves were often captives from war, witches, or people in dept. As distant lands needed slaves, they started trading slaves through the trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean Trade networks. As demands for slaves rose, slave raiding began. This set the stage for the Atlantic slave trade to come. 10. Both Christianity and Islam did appeal to the sub-Saharan people, but they did no replace their native religions. Some adapted to Islam when in trade, but returned to their traditional customs when they returned. The conversion of Christianity and Islam has started for the various advantages that it made available to them.
Chapter 20 Study Questions
1. The journeys of the Polos represented the missionary efforts of the western Christian church which brought cultural and religious unity throughout Europe. During the high middle ages, the Europeans built a vibrant and powerful society on the...
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