The African empires, kingdoms, and cities had many great achievements before the arrival of the Europeans. African empires, kingdoms, and cities were very successful with trading and social structure. The kingdom of Ghana gained control over the trans-Saharan gold and slat trade (doc. #2).Ancient Ghana was a very complex empire it had many characteristics of a powerful nation needed as if of today’s nation. The empires wealth was based on the trade it had the right amount of food income to feed the population of the empire. Ghana ruled the land he controlled it the empire had military force to contain peace and assured safe trade. Ghana had a strong military with advanced weapons to help keep justice in the social organization. Also they had foreign policy to keep peace with other people (doc. #3). In 1235 Mali had begun to grow a while after the Kingdom expanded the Mali Empire and was twice the size of the Ghana Empire the Ghana Empire slowly started to weaken. He was looked at different because of his generosity he shared gold with officer of the court. There was no man that was part of any office that did not receive gold from him. (pg.373) He died in 1255 and a next ruler was Muslim Mansa Musa was skilled with military leading just like Mali. (doc. #4). A Moroccan traveler who went by the name of Leo Africanus visited Timbuktu and other cities in Mali in 1352 . Leo said that Timbuktu had doctors, priest, and judges all at the kings will. There was an various amount of manuscripts and written books that were sold the manuscripts and books were sold more than most of the merchandise (doc. #5). Ibn Battuta (a.k.a Leo Africanus) said that he was impressed that he could travel without any fear and he felt safe traveling. The abhorrence of the crimes was very strict. if they found you guilty they showed no mercy and Ibn liked that because he wouldn’t have to worry about being robbed. The harsh punishment...