Weber Schrammn Model

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Schramm Model (1954): Wilbur Schramm, a well-known communication expert did not make a sharp distinction between technical and non-technical communication. But drawing upon the ideas of Shannon and Osgoods, Schramm proceeded from a simple human communication model to a more complicated one (Figure 3). His first model has a lot of similarity with Shannon and Weaver Model.

Destination
Signal
Source

EncoderDecoder

Figure 3 Schramm Model

In the second model (Figure, 4, Schramm visualized the process of communication as a process of sharing of experience and commonality of experience of those communicating. It introduced the concept of shared orientation between sender and receiver. The circles in this model indicate the accumulated experience of two individuals engaged in communication. The source can encode and the destination can decode in terms of the experience

Field of experience
Field of experience
Signal

Source

Encoder

Destination
Decoder

Figure 4 Schramm Model

In this model the accumulated experience of two individuals engaged .in communication is emphasized unlike in the linear models discussed earlier in which interaction, feedback and sharing of experiences find no place. . The source can encode and the destination can decode in terms of the experience/s each has had. Communication becomes easy as both the participants have a common field of experience. If the circles do not meet there is an absence of such common experience which makes the process of communication difficult.

Schramm further elaborated his model by highlighting the frames of reference of the persons engaged in communication. He took into account the wider social situations and the relationships of both source and destination. He maintained that when both have the same kind of situations, the message is selected, received, and interpreted according to the frames of references in which noise and feedback play...
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