Theories for Theracom

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Theoretical Background
The concept of Effective Therapeutic Communication is the anchoring theory for this study. Effective therapeutic communication is the result when certain conditions and principles are achieved, maintained, and understood. Such conditions are: Attitude, Environment, Socio-cultural and Ethnic background, Past experiences, Knowledge, Intersubjectivity, and Interpersonal relationships and perceptions. It becomes a learned process that benefits all of its participants. (Shives, 2008) There are several key components of affective communication. One such key component is self-awareness. Both the nurses and the client must be aware of the feelings about themselves and others, as well as the feelings about the content of the messages sent a received. Without self-awareness, nurses will find it impossible to establish and maintain therapeutic relationships with patients. (Shyder, 2002) Peplau’s classic work states that both the nurse and client bring with them unique experiences, beliefs, and expectation regarding interpersonal relationship. Therapeutic interaction afford the nurse and client opportunities to clarify communication and facilitate an optimal state of health. Thus, the nurse must take sufficient time in communicating with patients to achieve effective therapeutic communication. (Deborrah, 2007) Jurgen Reusch’s theory for communication states that communication has a social matrix defined by perception (how to give meaning), efficiency (structure and timing), appropriateness (under right condition), flexibility      (available), and feedback (evaluative action) of both sender and receiver in a communication process. These features must be considered with high importance to ensure effective communication.(Reusch and Bateson, 2008) Communication involves complex biological processes, psychosocial influences, and developmental milestones that occur with the context of societal and health care trends and an explosion of technological advances. Utilization of these factors combined influence and enhances how one speaks, what one says, and how people relate to each other both verbally and nonverbally.(Deborrah, 2007) The channels of communication are those faculties or resources through which information is transmitted in face to face communication, one or more of the five senses; hearing, taste, smell, etc; is involved. The more exposure of senses involved, the more information is obtained and sent effectively. (Hall, 2002) Many factors pertaining to the nurse influence communication. State of health, home situation, workload, staff relations, past experience, can all impact the nurse’s attitude, thinking, concentration, and emotions. Good conditions of these features enhance the nurse’s ability to communicate with patients. (White, 2005) Education is another strong influence on communication. Vocabulary generally increases as well as the ability to discuss and understand concepts and abstract ideas. The more knowledge patients acquire, the higher is his ability to understand and express more and complex events concerning health. An educator must also be able to know how to adjust a subject to a level a listener can comprehend. (White, 2005) A person’s emotional state greatly influences how messages are sent or received. Effective communication can be established if the participants’ emotional states are appropriate with the conversation. (White, 2005) Language certainly influences communication. Speaking the same language assists people in understanding each other, although regional accents or dialects of a language can inhibit communication and understanding. (White, 2005) The amount of attention each individual focuses on a given communication greatly affects the outcome (White, 2005). Active listening is listening purposely. It brings clarity to conversations and improves mutual understanding among people. (Cantos, 2009) Exposure with an environment affects communication. Most people do not want to...
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