‘Waste’ is a very general word, used to include anything that is no longer needed for use and is thrown away uncared. It has created and added a new problem to the environmental pollution. Pollution also creates serious problems for human health. There is remarkable growth in energy generation, fertilizers, pesticides, chemicals, production of coal etc. All these and much more is expected to increase in the years to come. For this, we need to understand different sources of waste.
GENERATION OF WASTE: ITS SOURCES
What is Waste?
Any thing that is no longer needed for use and is thrown away uncared, is Waste. Wastes – (a) Occupy some space (wherever they are thrown), (b) produce smell and (c) have weight. Therefore, wastes are matter only. Therefore, the material, which is discarded after use, is referred to as waste. Usually the term waste is used for solid residues. Actually, waste is not only solid but also liquid and gaseous. Now it is clear that unwanted wastes contaminate air, water and soil ecosystems. Although all living beings generate waste products, in our country the population is more than 100 crore, hence we can imagine the amount of waste that is added to the surroundings. All human activities generate waste, therefore tones of waste is produced every year by various human activities. Most of the waste generated from household activities, industries, offices, hospitals and agriculture. Nevertheless, more waste is generated in urban areas than in villages.
|DO YOU KNOW …..? | |Pollution refers to any undesirable change in our environment i.e. air, water and soil that may adversely affect humans or other | |species. Pollutants cause the pollution. In simple words, pollutants are the wastes, which are residues of things we make use and throw| |away. |
Sources of Waste Generation
The sources of waste generation are many and vary from country to country and city to city. It is generated from a number of sources. The major sources are – 1. Domestic sources of waste
2. Industrial sources of waste
3. Agricultural waste
4. Municipal waste
5. Commercial waste
6. Medical waste
7. Electronic waste
8. Hazardous waste
1. Domestic waste :
Domestic sources of waste are commonly known as refuse. It can be classified into following categories – a) Garbage: These are the things that are used for a period and then thrown as waste. It contains fruits and vegetables peels, kitchen garbage, household rubbish, paper, plastics, glasses, broken bottles, etc. It has to be deposited properly as it breeds flies and insects. They spread various diseases. b) Rubbish: It contains paper, plastics, rubber, wood etc. c) Excreta: It contains human and animal excreta. It should be properly disposed, otherwise causes environmental pollution. d) Sullage: It is the wastewater disposed off from bathroom, latrine and kitchen. e) Ashes: When a solid fuel like coal, wood etc. is burnt, the residue left over is called ash. All these wastes are harmful for living beings, affect plant’s growth and cause diseases. These are disposed off by land filling, incineration and composting. Following table shows various human activities from which wastes are generated and their types of waste generated.
| Various human activities | Types of waste generation | | | | |Domestic wastes...