Visually Impaired

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CHI 2011 COMPETITION WORKING BIBLIOGRAPHY
Webster, A., Roe, J., Children with Visual Impairments: Social Interaction, Language and Learning Visual impairments and Individual Needs
London: Routledge (1998)

Summary:
This chapter sets out how the authors have approached the individual learning needs of children with visual impairments, and emphasizes, wherever feasible, a research basis for intervention. They explore contrasting images of children with visual impairments, highlighting unique differences in the way in which individuals adapt to their experience in contrasting contexts. To some extent these images are reflected in changes in policy and legislation over time, moving from the ‘deficit’ models that informed earlier provision to more recent concerns with the personal goals that underpin ‘lifetime learning’. Throughout the text, practical advice is shaped by the framework of the Code of Practice for SEN as it is currently being implemented in mainstream primary and secondary schools. Recent research evidence, introduced briefly here, probes key aspects of interpersonal contexts, such as the scaffolding of interactions between adults and children, and the processes that promote independent control of learning in children with significant hurdles to surmount. Relevance to the study:

The major variables that adults, particularly teachers, control are the conditions within which learning takes place, and the transactions that support the child’s adaptive efforts to make sense of the world. That is why the researchers plan to design a device that will support the visually impaired children in terms of their learning needs. Although there are sample of case studies illustrates the range of individual differences encountered in children with visual impairments, in terms of ability, learning style, persistence, motivation, adaptivity and resilience, however, we need to look at the strategies adopted by adults and the culture of teaching environments in order to find ways of optimizing learning. In this chapter, the researchers learn how the blind children learn and respond in spite of their disability. The condition of their intelligence and capacity to learn would help the researchers design since it involves memory and how well they sustain it.

CHI 2011 COMPETITION WORKING BIBLIOGRAPHY
Webster, A., Roe, J., Children with Visual Impairments: Social Interaction, Language and Learning Vision and Visual Impairments
London: Routledge (1998)

Summary:
In this chapter the authors gives descriptions of the ‘normal’ eye, its structure and function, as a basis for understanding the processes of seeing and how these may be affected by different eye conditions. Given the complexity of the visual system, it is not surprising that there is a very wide range of conditions that may affect individuals. There is much specialist language used by different professional groups, and the medical or legal definitions of blindness differ considerably from those used in education. Population figures for different groups depend on official categories and the data for registration; nevertheless, they have provided estimates for the numbers of individuals with handicapping visual conditions, together with recent figures for the numbers of children receiving different forms of educational help. Relevance to the study:

Since our study talks about blindness, it basically involves defect in the eyes. Parents and teachers often ask for advice on the kinds of signs to look out for in identifying a potential visual impairment. Some issues such as early screening and the assessment of vision, including details of common testing procedures used by doctors, specialists and other professional agencies. Functional vision—how children use their eyesight in real settings—is obviously of interest to teachers concerned with how well an individual may cope with the challenges of a mainstream school environment. Blind people will no longer use...
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