Urbanisation and Population

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6a. Urbanization refers to much more than simple population growth; it involves changes in the economic, social and political structures of a region. Rapid urban growth is responsible for many environmental and social changes in the urban environment. The rapid growth of cities strains their capacity to provide services such as energy, education, health care, transportation, sanitation and physical security. *3 Urbanization transforms societal organizations, the role of the family, demographic structures, the nature of work, and the way we choose to live and with whom. It also modifies domestic roles and relations within the family, and redefines concepts of individual and social responsibility. *1 Social impact of the urbanization: *4

1. Contact with the labour market: established in urban areas population adjusts to match the work market, specializing in the needs of existing brand and thus framing and adaptation. 2. Families and the urban society: it has been often seen a decline in the concept of the family, through the proliferation of less traditional forms and new types of households. This tendency is manifested as a consequence of the diversity of the many options for individuals, in which individuals are organizing into form collective units. Children are clearly less useful in urban settlements, as units of labor and producers, than in rural settings, and are also more expensive to house and feed. *1

* The number of domestic households increased drastically from 0.69 million in 1961 to 2.37 million in 2011. The trend towards smaller household was another important factor accounting for the sharp rise in the number of domestic households. The average household size dropped from 4.5 in 1971 to 2.9 in 2011. *3

3. Domestic relations: The development of export-oriented manufacturing activity has created considerable demand for low and medium skilled labour, especially for women. An increase in the rate of participation of women in the labor market,...
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