The aim of this essay is to analyse the concepts of health, disability, illness and behaviour and also investigate how health and social care services and systems support individuals with specific needs and look at different approaches and intervention strategies available to support individuals with specific needs, lastly will explain what challenging behaviour is and explain strategies available for those working with people with specific needs LO1.1
Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 1974). During the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion in 1986, the World Health Organisation said that health is “a source for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasising social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities”. Health is traditionally equated to the absence of disease. A lack of fundamental pathology was thought to define ones health as good, whereas biological driven pathogens and conditions would render an individual with poor health and labelled diseased. However, Aggleton & Homans (1897), Ewles & Simnett (1999) argue that health is holistic and includes different dimensions and all needs to be considered. Bilingham (2010) explains health in two models which are the biomedical model and the socio-medical model. She said biomedical model is an approach to health and illness that identifies healthy as the ‘absence of disease’ and focuses on diagnosing and curing individuals with specific illnesses , the socio medial model is an approach to health and illness that focuses on the social and environmental factors that influence our health, including the impact of poverty and poor housing. The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 defines a disabled person as anyone with a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long term adverse effect upon his or her ability to carry out normal day to day activities. Disability can affect someone’s mobility, learning or understanding, and lack of understanding when it comes to danger. Disability covers a lot of impairments which include physical impairments, sensory impairments and communication difficulties. There are three models of disability which are the personal tragedy model, the medical model and the social model. In the past people with disabilities were discriminated by the families and the society. The language and terminology used were words such as imbeciles, handicapped and mental retarded. People with disabilities were called dangerous and scary and they were seen as not equal citizens, in need of special care. They were not seen as normal people. Behaviour is anything that a person does or does not do which has a negative effect on their lives or the lives of others. The negative effects can be emotional, physical and social. Also, one’s behaviour pleases and other’s infuriates. Some behaviour are socially acceptable here in the western world but not socially acceptable in African communities, for example kissing in public is not totally acceptable where I come from nevertheless, here in London (Europe) people can kiss in the public without any problem, people accept such behaviours in Europe . Illness is the partial experience of loss of health (Naidoo and Wills, 2000 p7). Illness is having poor health and is considered a synonym for disease; some have described it as a perception by a patient to define a disease. Illness indicates a condition causing harm and pain. Social constructionists argue that the following concepts illness, health, disease and behaviour are all relative concepts not universal but particular. Social concepts are learned and shared. Concepts often tell us more about the societies out of which they came than about the thing they are actually describing.
People’s perceptions on specific needs vary from cultures and societies. People’s perceptions...