The expected pattern of development for children and young people from birth- 19 years Physical Development
This is an important area of children’s development and one which is often assumed to take place automatically as they grow and mature. Although children develop many skills naturally as they older, it is imperative that they have opportunities to develop them in a variety of ways and they will need support to do this. Age | Stage of development|
0-3 years| This is a period of fast physical development. New-born babies have very little control over their bodies. Their movement are dependant on a series of reflexes such as sucking and grasping, which they need in order to survive. In their first year, however, they gradually start to learn how to have more control over their bodies so that by 12 months most babies have developed a degree of mobility such as crawling or rolling. In their second year, babies continue to grow and develop quickly and it is at this stage that most children start to walk. Their ability to control their movement means that they can start using their hands for pointing, holding small objects, dressing and feeding themselves. They will also be able to play with a ball and enjoy climbing, e.g. on stairs or furniture.| 3-7 years| At this stage, children are able to carry out more co-ordinated movements and growing in confidence as a result. They are refining the skills developed so far and have more control over fine skills such as cutting, writing and drawing. They are also more confident in activities such as running, kicking a ball and using larger equipment. | 7-12 years| Children continue to grow, develop and refine many of their skills through these years. They may start to have hobbies and interests, such as sport or dance, which mean that they are practised in some areas. They may also be able to make very controlled fine movements such as those required for playing an instrument, sewing or drawing. Girls, in particular, start to show some of the early signs of puberty from he age of 10 or 11. In boys, puberty usually starts later, when there will be another period of physical growth.| 12-16 years| At this stage of development, young people are growing stronger. Boys are starting to go through puberty and many girls have completed the process and have regular periods. As a result, between these ages, there can be a great variety in height and strength. At the end of this stage, on average most boys are taller than most girls.| 16-19 years| Young people are adults and an increased independence allowed by the parents or legal guardians and less supervision. Many girls may have reached physical maturity, boys will continue to grow and change until their mid-20’s.|
Communication and language development
Communication skills and intellectual development are closely linked with one another as children need language in order to think and learn. If they have limited experiences and simulation through social interaction with others, their learning and development may be affected. Age| Stage of Development|
0-3 years| At this early stage they are not able to understand what is being said to them. Babies will be listening to language around them and will enjoy songs and games. Most will start to speak around 12 months. Between 1 and 2 years they will start to put words together and vocabulary will increase rapidly. Most children will have about 200 words by 2 years. Between 2 and 3 years, children will be starting to use negatives and plurals in their speech. Vocabulary will continue to increase rapidly, they will still make errors in grammar.| 3-7 years| Children will have more social and wider experiences. They will use increasing amount of familiar phrases and expressions. They will talk about things in the past and present tenses and also ask a large amount of questions.| 7-12 years| By this stage,...