Anyone working with children of any age should have a strong detailed knowledge of the different aspect of development from birth to 19 years. These areas are, • Physical development
• Communication development
• Intellectual/cognitive development
• Social, emotional and behavioural development
• Moral development
This is where children learn to grasp and conquer control over their body movements. Physical development is normally split into 2 groups. Fine motor skills- this is used to refer to movements that are seen as delicate and done with the fingers i.e. holding a pencil, fine motor skills is also linked to vision and is normally known as hand eye coordination and is used together when a child may be tying their shoe lace. Gross motor skills-this is used to refer to whole body movements for example a baby sitting up, crawling, learning to walk then to progress to things like kicking or throwing of a ball. Throughout the first 5 years of a child’s life this skills are developed at a fast rate.
This is where children learn to communicate with others and understand their own communication. This done in many ways depending on the child age and ability, starting with just making a sound to get attention, to learning to read, write, use sign language to starting to understand communicating with the use of body language. Communication development is linked to intellectual/cognitive development as children learn to think and understand before they communicate.
Intellectual/cognitive development covers a huge area of development within the brain. Covering things like memory, concentration, imagination, creativity, problem solving, knowledge and understanding. The brain learns to processes and development information that the child is learning on daily basis from their surroundings and other people. Examples of cognitive skills are being able to remember someone’s name and the difference between 2 colours.
Social, Emotional and Behavioural Development
This is where the child learns to express and control their own emotion which links to the child learning what behaviour is acceptable. A good example of this is frustration at not being able to do something, as the child grows and develops, they will be able to control what emotions and behaviour are acceptable in certain situations. This also has strong ties with cognitive and communication development, for example been attached to a loved one: for a child to be able to express emotion they must first be able to communicate with that person and understand. Moral Development
This is where children and young people learn about the principles and values they hold to help make the right decision throughout life. These values and principles may be ones that have been enforced upon them either from society or family upbringing. Moral development is linked strongly with social, emotional and behavioural development, because morality involves the way we are accepted into a social group this may stir up emotion that have to be controlled therefore this may have an impact on behaviour. Moral development is also linked to intellectual/cognitive development because to be able to develop values and principle one must be able to think and to be able to make decisions.
This development tables shows a snap shot of a child’s developmental stages throughout birth to 19 years
The sequence of development is the pattern or order that the developmental stages are expected to happen. These are also known as the developmental norms or milestones, a lot of the developmental sequences are divided into age range i.e. birth -1 years, 1- 4 years, 4- 11 years, 11-16 years and 16-19years. This is to help show you what the child is meant to be achieving at certain ages in their lives.
The rate of development is the speed in which a...