The term “Sequence” of child development refers to the how we expect a child to develop from the day it was born to the age of 19. Child Development is the biological, physiological and all the emotional changes that happen during these formative years as the child goes from dependency to autonomy. These changes could be hugely influenced by genetics, events that occur whilst in the womb and during prenatal development and are usually included in most studies of child development. Developmental changes are different. They occur as a result of a genetically controlled process called maturation or as a result of environmental factors and learning (home life and school for example) but these changes most commonly happen as a result of a combination of them both. It can also be a result of “human nature” which is the ability of the growing child to in fact learn from their environment. Human beings and especially children have a keen sense to adapt to their surroundings and this is what child development covers and includes. A child’s development is continually happening and can be measured in many different ways and although the child will develop at different rates and in different ways, the sequence in which this happens will follow the same sort of pattern .This is because in most examples they need to learn one skill before they can move onto the next. An example is walking. The child will need to learn to walk before they can run or jump etc. Development in children is more rapid in the early stages with many milestones happening in quick succession. This slows down as the child becomes a young adult with the milestones becoming further apart.(Cache children and young people’s workforce p49)
The table below looks more closely at the aspects of child development.
THE DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES CHART
Age| Intellectual| Social / Emotional| Language| Gross motor| Fine Motor| Infant – Birth to one year| Uses hands and mouth to learn| Forms a bond with parents, will begin to recognise faces and smiles, at about 6months will recognise parents and be fearful of strangers.| Starts being vocal and using terms such as “mammy and daddy”| Lifts head first then chest, rolls over, pulls to sit, crawls and stands alone| Reaches for objects and picks up small items, clutches onto toys, e.g. Rattle | Toddler 1-2 years| Begins to learn words for objects and people| Learns that self and parent(s) are different or separate from each other, imitates and performs tasks, indicates needs or wants without crying| Can follow simple instructions and say more words than just “mammy and daddy”| Can walk, stop, jump and throw things like a ball.| Unbuttons clothes, builds tower of 4 cubes, scribbles, uses spoon, picks up very small object| Preschool2-5 years| Understands things such as tired, hungry and cold, recognises colours, becomes aware of numbers and letters| Begins to separate easily from parent(s), dresses with assistance, washes and dries hands, plays interactive games like tag.| follows directions, can make simple sentences of two or three words, vocabulary increases Names pictures| Runs well, hops, pedals tricycle, balances on one foot| Buttons Clothes, builds tower of 8 cubes, copies simple figures or letters| School age 5-12 years| Develops understanding of numeracy and literacy concepts, learns relationship between objects and feelings, acquires knowledge and understanding| Acts independently, but is emotionally close to parent(s) dresses without help, join same sex play groups and clubs| Defines words, know and describes what things are made of, vocabulary increases| Skips, balances on one foot for 10 seconds, overestimates physical abilities| Draws person with 6 parts, copies detailed figures and objects| 12-18 years| Understands abstract concepts like illness and death, develops understanding of complex ideas| Experiences rapidly...