Translation

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TRANSLATION: The process of turning an original or "source" text into a text in another language. TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES
Direct Translation Techniques are used when structural and conceptual elements of the source language can be transposed into the target language. Direct translation techniques include: * Borrowing

* Calque
* Literal Translation
Borrowing
Borrowing is the taking of words directly from one language into another without translation. For example software, funk. English also borrows numerous words from other languages; abbatoire, café, passé and résumé from French; hamburger and kindergarden from German; bandana, musk and sugar from Sanskrit. Calque

A calque or loan translation is a phrase borrowed from another language and translated literally word-for-word. Examples that have been absorbed into English include standpoint and beer garden from German Standpunkt and Biergarten; breakfast from French déjeuner. Literal Translation

A word-for-word translation can be used in some languages and not others dependent on the sentence structure: El equipo está trabajando para terminar el informe would translate into English as The team is working to finish the report. Sometimes it works and sometimes it does not. And one sentence can be translated literally across languages does not mean that all sentences can be translated literally. El equipo experimentado está trabajando para terminar el informe translates into English as The experienced team is working to finish the report ("experienced" and "team" are reversed). Oblique Translation Techniques

Oblique Translation Techniques are used when the structural or conceptual elements of the source language cannot be directly translated without altering meaning or upsetting the grammatical and stylistics elements of the target language. Oblique translation techniques include:

* Transposition
* Modulation
* Reformulation or Equivalence
* Adaptation
* Compensation
Transposition
This is the process where parts of speech change their sequence when they are translated. It is in a sense a shift of word class. Grammatical structures are often different in different languages. Transposition is often used between English and Spanish because of the preferred position of the verb in the sentence: English often has the verb near the beginning of a sentence; Spanish can have it closer to the end. This requires that the translator knows that it is possible to replace a word category in the target language without altering the meaning of the source text, for example: English Hand knitted (noun + participle) becomes Spanish Tejido a mano (participle + adverbial phrase). Modulation

Modulation consists of using a phrase that is different in the source and target languages to convey the same idea: Te lo dejo means literally I leave it to you but translates better as You can have it. It changes the semantics and shifts the point of view of the source language. Through modulation, the translator generates a change in the point of view of the message without altering meaning and without generating a sense of embarrassment in the reader of the target text. It is often used within the same language. The expressions es fácil de entender (it is easy to understand) and no es complicado de entender (it is not complicated to understand) are examples of modulation. Reformulation or Equivalence

Here you have to express something in a completely different way, for example when translating idioms or advertising slogans. The process is creative, but not always easy. Adaptation
Adaptation occurs when something specific to one language culture is expressed in a totally different way that is familiar or appropriate to another language culture. It is a shift in cultural environment. Should pincho (a Spanish restaurant menu dish) be translated as kebab in English? It involves changing the cultural reference when a situation in the source culture does not exist in the...
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