Chapter 5 Vocabulary

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1.literary tradition - language that is written as well as spoken. Example: English is a literary tradition. 2.official language - in multilingual countries that language selected, often by the educated and politically powerful elite, to promote internal cohesion; usually the language of the courts and government. Example: The official language of India is Hindi. 3.Proto-Indoeuropean - hypothesized ancestral Indo-European language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages. Example: Russian is derived from the Proto-Indoeuropean language family. 4.Dialect - local or regional characteristics of a language. While accent refers to the pronunciation differences of a standard language, a dialect, in addition to pronunciation variation, has distinctive grammar and vocabulary. Example: The word “y’all” is used in the south, almost specifically to that group of people. 5.Nostratic - hypothesized ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, as well as other ancestral language families. Example: The language from which the Proto-Indo-European languages derived. 6.standard language - variant of a language that a country’s intellectual or politically elite seek to promote as the norm (e.g., King’s English). Example: Standard language would say “I have never been there before” while non-standard language would say “I ain’t never been there before”. 7.sound shift - slight change in a word across related languages from the present backward toward its origin. Example: The word “besser” in Deutsch became “better” in English due to a sound shift. 8.Isogloss - geographical boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs. Example: The North-Midland Isogloss that has the Northern Cities Vowel Shift in regions north of the line (including Western New York, Cleveland, Ohio, lower Michigan, northern Illinois and eastern Wisconsin). 9.backward reconstruction - the tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants...
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