Training can be described as “the acquisition of skills, concepts or attitudes that result in improved performance within the job environment”. Training analysis looks at each aspect of an operational domain so that the initial skills, concepts and attitudes of the human elements of a system can be effectively identified and appropriate training can be specified.
Training analysis as a process often covers:
* Review of current training
* Task analysis (of new or modified system)
* Identification of training gap
* Statement of training requirement
* Assessment of training options
* Cost benefit analysis of training options
Training Analysis is most often used as part of the system development process. Due to the close tie between the design of the system and the training required, in most cases it runs alongside the development to capture the training requirements.
Design Integrated Training Analysis
K Tara Smith proposed and developed tools and methods for an integrated approach Design Integrated Training Analysis, where the trade-offs between design and training are both assessed in the light of the understanding of the operational tasks.
This approach also used information regarding recorded critical incidents to review proposed training and to provide traceability between hazards and training.
This single integrated approach to human factors and training analysis has been successfully used on a number of defence projects. Training Analysis Process
Over the last 20 years the critical nature of the man-in-the-loop has changed from simply manual dexterity and procedural operation to a state in which their decision making, cognitive abilities, data assimilation, communication skills, and attitude are all crucial. In addition the job structure of the personnel operationally involved with modern systems has diversified in direct proportion to the complexity of the technology. This has fuelled the need for a formal approach.
The task of training can be broken down into a number of discrete components, each addressing a different part of the overall learning process. This breakdown is as follows:-
* Psycho-motor Skills
* Procedural Skills
* Knowledge Transfer
* Communication Skills
* Colossal Thinking
* Attitude Learning
* Performance Training.
The role of training analysis is to build a formal bridge between the available design data and the training media and training objectives, in order to facilitate the transfer of training elements into the operational environment.
For complex multi-user system a user-to-task map is often constructed to present the relationship between the tasks and the identified team structure and also to identify new groups of users that would need to have an understanding of the system. The training gap is assessed by a comparison between the goals and tasks undertaken by the individuals and the existing training.
There is a wide variety of training media that can be used, ranging from traditional lecture-based teaching to sophisticated simulators. Different media will be more or less appropriate for different activities. It is necessary to determine the most suitable and cost-effective training media for the different areas.
There have been many different approaches defined however the system approach to training has been the most successful.
Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is defined as the “Identification of training requirements and the most cost effective means of meeting those requirements”.
A TNA should always be performed where a major new development in policy, equipment acquisition or procedures is deemed to have potential impact upon the current training regime.
TST has considerable experience of successfully employing the accepted techniques applied to the development of training systems, including the Systems Approach...