Theory of Communication
Introduction to Communication
Good communication and interpersonal skills are vital for success in business. The ability to communicate clearly and persuasively is often seen as the key characteristic of the effective manager or administrator. High level communication skills are also essential in specialised functions, such as marketing, human resource management, public relations and secretarial. Communication is the means by which individual employees convey their wants, ideas and feelings to others,( not only managers or specialists).
Process of Communication
Communication can be defined as the process by which, ideas, information, opinions, attitude, and feeling are conveyed from one person to another. The communicator or sender is the person who initiates the conversation by sending a message. The receiver is the person who receives the messages and completes the communication by responding to it. Most communication is two way and has to have both a sender and receiver, either face to face or by other means such as telephone, letters, e-mails etc. Body language also plays a big part in communication.
* Written language
* Spoken language
* Body language
* Pictures, photographs and graphic illustrations.
* Sign language, Braille.
* Computer language
The medium is the means used to transmit the message. Media can be categorised into five headings; written, oral, visual, electronic and mass. Written media can provide a written record, can relay complex information, can be carefully thought out and mistakes can be edited. It takes time to produce and is more impersonal than speech. * Letter
* Press Release
* Company magazine
* Advertising leaflet
Oral media is more direct and personal, feedback is immediate. Oral media can be supported by body language. But there may be no record of what is said and if you say something you don’t mean you cannot take it back. * Conversation face to face or telephone
* Oral briefing
Visual media can have an immediate impact, it can support verbal presentations. * Nonverbal
Electronic media provides fast communication over long distance, can carry both verbal and visual information. * Video
Mass media is an important source of information; it can reach a large number of people and can be used for advertising. * Television
Channels of Communication
The channel is the air that carries sound waves between speaker and listener such as: * Television channels
* Postal system
* Computer networks
* Courier services
Barriers to Communication
Effective communication is difficult and mistakes are often made. We see this in everyday life, we complain when someone doesn’t respond to our messages in the way we expect, they do not understand what we really meant to say. In business, difficulties with communication can cause disruption. Good business opportunities can be lost or disastrous management decisions made. A serious breakdown in communication can put the very future of a company at risk. Communication errors can never be completely eliminated. Nevertheless, we are likely to be more successful communicators if we are aware of the factors that cause communication to fail. Some obstacles stand in the way of communication and some of these can be avoided or overcome. Physical Barriers
Among these barriers are poor hearing or eyesight, illness, tiredness, or stress. Other barriers can be, distractions such as an office that is too warm or too cold,...