The Tasks of Planning, Organising, Leading and Controlling in Management INTRODUCTION
Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to 'manage' oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS
Management operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing, staffing, leading/directing, controlling/monitoring and Motivation. Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next 5 years, etc.) and generating plans for action. Organizing: (Implementation) making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. Staffing: Job Analyzing, recruitment, and hiring individuals for appropriate jobs. Leading/Directing: Determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it. Controlling/Monitoring: Checking progress against plans.
Motivation : Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation, employees cannot work effectively. If motivation doesn't take place in an organization, then employees may not contribute to the other functions (which are usually set by top level management). Planning, organising, leading and controlling are asserted to be the four crucial functions of a manager. A manager’s role is to lead his/her organisation to a clearly stated objective. In doing so he/she must muster all his resources in a concise and organised attempt at achieving those goals. To do this a manager must lead, plan, organise and control the organisation’s employees. A manager can be defined in many ways. From the high ranking Chief Executive Officer or the Team leader who is fundamental to the organisation. Each manager therefore has different roles throughout these stages. The team leader ‘manager’ has a more hands on role in the running of the company compared to the CEO, who as well as concentrating on the day to day running of the company must also asses the future layout of the organization (Dauphinais et al., 1998, p.18) The four functions of a manager as stated above are crucial to the prolonged success of any company. Leading is perhaps the most crucial tool of any manager since his/her presence and motivation ability is critical to the achievement of the goals stated in the planning stage. The global business environment of today is a reference to the ever expanding global marketplace, and how it has opened up thousands of markets for companies, as well as exposing it to many more competitors and pitfalls. PLANNING
Planning is a vital tool to any manager since it allows him to help prepare for the future, rather than being commanded by it (Allen, 1973, p.64). A comprehensive plan both helps coordinate the actions of all team members, while also serving as a basis for control and feedback. By using a systematic approach to planning, a manager can ascertain the capabilities of his employees and utilize resources to accomplish the most desired outcome(Geneen, 1985, p.84). Allen (1973, pg.64) states that there are seven major steps in planning, and although his work is dated both Robbins and Crainer, in more recent analysis of management agree with him in a majority of cases; Objectives: A goal which the...
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