THE PHILIPPINE EDUCATION SYSTEM
The education system of the country includes formal and non-formal education. Compared to other Asian countries, the Philippine education system differs in a number of ways. Basic education in the Philippines is only 10years as against 12 in other countries. The Philippine education system is closely related to the American system of formal education while other Asian countries are influenced by the English, French or Dutch system. The Philippines issuing a bilingual medium of instruction. Certain subjects are taught in English and the rest in the national language which is Filipino. 2.1 Formal education
The formal education is a sequential progression of academic schooling at three levels, namely, elementary, secondary and tertiary or higher education. The structure of the formal system of education is illustrated below.
THE PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
The first level, elementary or primary education, consists of compulsory six grades (Grades 1-6) for age group of 6 to 11. In addition, there is optional pre-school education which consists of kindergarten schooling other preparatory courses. At the age of 3 or 4, a pupil may enter nursery school, and at 6 years old proceeds to grade one. Secondary education
The second level, secondary education, corresponds to four years of high school for age group of 12to 15, the prerequisite of which is completion of elementary education. Higher education
The third level is tertiary or higher education where a student enters at age 16. Higher educationconsists of collegiate, master’s and doctorate degree programs in various fields or disciplines including the post-secondary schooling leading to one-, two- or three-year non-degree technical or vocational courses.As of 1998, there are 46,654 schools in all levels, of which, 85 percent is public (see Table 1). Of the38,774 elementary schools, 92 percent is public. In the secondary level, of the 6,598 schools, 60 percent is public. And of the 1,282 higher education institutions, 20 percent is public. Enrolment statistics for all levels are shown in Table 2. 2.2 Non-formal education
Non-formal education is an organized learning activity aimed at attaining a set of objectives outside the established formal system intended for a particular clientele, especially the out-of-school youth or adult illiterates who cannot avail themselves of formal education. Courses are skills-oriented and range from 6 to 10 months.
3. HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM
Higher education lies at the apex of the education system. The philosophy, mission, vision and goals of higher education in the Philippines as cited below are embodied in a comprehensive document of the Commission on Higher Education entitled “Long-Term Higher Education Development Plan, 1996-2005.” Philosophy
In an environment of freedom, excellence and relevance, higher education harnesses, develops and catalyzes the constructive and productive use of the full potentials and capabilities of Filipino men and women into becoming creative, decisive, competitive, critically thinking and acting individuals who contribute to the: 1) realization of Filipino identity and strong sense of national pride; 2) cultivation and inculcation of moral and spiritual foundation; 3) attainment of political maturity, economic stability and equitable social progress; and 4) preservation and enrichment of the historical and cultural heritage of the Filipinos, as a people and a nation. Mission
Higher education shall be geared towards the pursuit of better quality of life for all Filipinos by emphasizing the acquisition of knowledge and formation of those skills necessary to make the individual a productive member of society. It shall accelerate the development of high-level professionals who will search for new knowledge, and provide leadership in the various disciplines required by a dynamic and self-sustaining economy. Higher education shall likewise...
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