Enzymes are biological catalysts; proteins and RNA. They are required for most biological reactions and they are highly specific. Each enzyme has an active site. The active site is the spot on the enzyme where a substrate fits in. Substrates binds with enzymes through the active site. Enzymes, being highly specific, only fit with one certain substrate. Enzymes and substrates fit and work together like a lock and key. Enzymes are not consumed in reactions. Even though a single enzyme can catalyze thousands or more reactions per second, the enzyme will stay unaffected by the reaction. Although reactions don’t affect enzymes, there are factors that do affect enzymes. Substrate concentration, pH, temperature, and salinity are a few things that do affect enzymes; these cellular conditions. They affect the enzyme because they change the shape of the cell. The purpose of this lab is to see how enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, pH, and temperature all affect enzyme activity.
1. If the concentration of enzymes is higher, then the reaction rate will be faster. 2. If the substrate concentration is higher, then the reaction rate will be faster. 3. If the pH is higher, then the reaction rate will be faster. 4. If the temperature is higher, then the reaction rate will be faster.
Materials: The materials differ depending on what effect is being demonstrated. For the effect of enzyme concentration on the enzyme, the materials used include: catalase (OH 3% and OH 1.0%), forceps, filter paper discs, water, ice, vials, water baths, marking pencils, and a timer. Data: The data being collected will be what type of effect does enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, pH, and temperature have on enzyme activity. This data will be collected by timing the reaction rate of the enzyme with the different effects. Procedure:...