Types of Communication: Internal and External
Need for Internal Communication
Reduce labour turnover
Channels of Communication
• Management can use one or more channels to communicate with his employees and obtain a feedback.Some experts prefer to use the phrase “lines of communication” instead of channels of communication. • We have Upward , Downward,Vertical, and horizontal.
• Horizontal Communication: Communication between people of equal and comparable status is known as horizontal communication. In every Organization unimportant and routine matters are dealt with by the employees without troubling their seniors. Eg. Manager to manager, Departmental head to departmental head. Communication between trade union leader and manager . • The need for horizontal communication within a organization is very great as without it there will be no coordination and cooperation among the different units. • Two wrong ideas about Horizontal communication in India: • 1. Whenever there is effective horizontal communication the management should not intervene. • 2. Attitude of the managers and executives towards this type of communication .They discourage this type of communication since they feel that the workers might get friendly and unite against the management. Eg. British used the divide and rule policy.
Vertical or two way communication.
• Management gives directions and sends information downwards and also receives periodic information from the subordinated about the effectiveness of their directives and their progress in the organization. Because of this exchange of information vertical communication is also known as two-way communication. Downward communication
• When orders, directions, instructions and information flow downward from superiors to subordinates it is known as downward communication. • Why is it necessary? It unites and binds the different levels of authority within the organization and preserves organizational and communication structure. • If a top executive bypasses the sectional heads and tries to communicate directly with the workers all the time he is only inviting trouble ,for the sectional heads will lose authority and responsibility and the result will be indiscipline and dissatisfaction. Why do we need downward communication?
• To give instructions and orders
• To inform subordinates about their performance
• To give background information about their job
• To explain policies and organization structure
• To issue warnings and reprimands or to express appreciation. • When communicating downwards managers should take care to see that: • They are very clear in their mind about order or information that is passed down • That it is passed down to the correct person in the hierarchy • Orders are expressed in clear and lucid words. • That information is not of a confidential or controversial nature such as trade union loyalty, religion or politics. Problems of downward communication
• Over communication
• Under communication
• Time consuming
• Loss of information
– Notice boards, posters , manuals, handbooks.
– Circulars, letters, reports , memos, oral and telephone talks, film shows, group gatherings, employee meeting and counselling representatives, annual meetings of shareholders. Upward communication
• This communication flows from subordinates to superiors. • Useful:
• How is the work of the workers progressing, achievements, failures • Unsolved work problems on which subordinates require help and guidance • Suggestions for improvement within the department anf the company • How workers feel about their jobs, associates, their supervisors and...