Telemedicine: Medicine and Health Care

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THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA

HECA 553 – Special topics in Health Care Administration

INSTRUCTOR – JUDE E. EDWARD, D.B.A.

From:
Milind Raval (ID-108 00 1235)

TELEMEDICINE USAGE IN FRANCE AND THE U.S: AN EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION USING THE TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL 1. INTRODUCTION
Today, telemedicine has made many advances around the world. Different countries have continued steady approach to telemedicine like Canada, U.K., France, and USA. Key aspect of telemedicine is the use of electronic signals to transfer information from one site to another. When medical care was limited to the radius in which the physician was available to deliver medical services, telephone became vehicle for healthcare service delivery. Radio also enabled during WW1, WW2, Korea & Vietnam. Outline of the case study:

a) Definitions.
b) Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).
c) Overview of the France healthcare system.
d) The U.S. healthcare system.
e) Trends and future.
f) Conclusion and areas of further research.
g) References.
2. BODY/ANALYSIS/DISCUSSION
a) Definitions
The following are some of the key definitions and terms used in this article. Tele-Health, Tele-Medicine, Teaching and Education, Tele-Medicine Information, Hospital Primary Care Networks, E-Readiness, Hard Technologies, Information Communication Technologies Infrastructure, Technology Adaptation, Technology Adoption, Transportation Modality. b) Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1986, 1989) is an adaptation of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). Initially Telemedicine, may be determined or measured by the End-Users' willingness to embrace and utilize a new or adaptation of existing technologies for specific application to telemedicine, in preference to an old technology (Davis, 1989). And later on focusing on a number of inter- and extra-organizational variables, Igbaria, Zinatelli, Cragg, and Cavaye (1997) made a number of interesting discoveries relative to computing utilization. For them the external components were (a) internal computing support, (b) internal computing training, (c) management support, (d) external computing support, and (e) external computing training. c) Overview of the France healthcare system

Modern France has one of the“universal” health care systems in the world and is a leader among European nations. It offers a “high quality services and is easily accessible at the same time”. In France, every employed individual, regardless of the level of employment, is covered by a national health insurance plan known as securite sociale (Social Security). The French health care system is mainly financed by social insurance but there is also a significant supplementary insurance. C.1 Telemedicine Systems in France

During the 1960’s, France experienced significant growth in the use of telephone and radiophone consultations for health care purposes. This growth led to the creation of the SAMU (Service d´Aide Medical d´Urgence) in 1968 and the SAMUR (Service Mobile d´Urgence et Reanimation), which represented important milestones in the history of telemedicine in France. Since the late 1990’s to date, France, being one of the co-founder of the European Community, implemented a number of programs that have catapulted France into the forefront of Telemedicine, not only in Europe but worldwide. France has taken many steps to extend telemedicine applications. Given all that France has accomplished in the area of Telemedicine, it is inconceivable that further advancements will be tempered only by advances in medical technology. d) The U.S. healthcare system.

Perhaps, driven by the “market-oriented economy of the U.S., the U.S health Care System is a “blend of public and private involvement in the delivery of health care services” (Shi and Singh, 2004). The health care system in the U.S is financed through...
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