ACADEMIC WRITING: TELEHEALTH AND TELEMEDICINE
In the early 1990s the term telemedicine became well-known in health care. Then, in the 21st century the term telemedicine change to telehealth because telemedicine is more than delivering medical care and wider services. Telemedicine was started over forty years ago which the hospitals extend care of patients in remote areas. This service rapidly spread and become integrated into the ongoing operations of hospitals, speciality departments, home health agencies, private physician offices, and consumer’s homes and workplaces. Thus, growing variety of applications and services using two way video, email, smart phones, wireless tools and other forms of telecommunication technology. The word Tele- comes from an ancient Greek word of the same spelling that means distant. The late 1960s in the United States where they need to have a system for distance education and teleconsultation facility between the Nebraska Psychiatric Institute and a remote state mental health hospital. The system named as closed-circuit television system. Other than that, cardiac surgeon Micheal DeBakery performed open heart surgery in the United States and transmitted the procedure live to a hospital in Geneva, Switzerland. He used Comsats Early Bird satellite. He describes the progressed of the operation and answered live questions from Geneva in 1965. This surgery called as telesurgery. Telehealth can be defines as the integration of information, telecommunication, human-machine interface technologies and health technologies to deliver health care, to promote the health status of the people and to create health. In addition, it is the conjunction with better information and communication technology (ICT) growth in the healthcare delivery. It integrates the used of telecommunications and information systems as well as multimedia technologies to promote health care delivery and create health plan for the individual. Telemedicine is the use of information technologies to exchange health information and provide health care services across geographical, time, social and cultural barriers. Hence, as an umbrella that covers any medical activities involving an element of distance. Telemedicine also make the information and communication technology (ICT) play roles supported the complex interactions between patients, doctor or nurse, consultant and medical equipment. In addition, it can define as the use of exchanged medical information from one site to another via electronic communications to improve a patient’s clinical health status. Telemedicine refers to the actual delivery of remote clinical services using technology. At the early stage, the term telemedicine was used but later on changed to telehealth. It is because telehealth refers to a broader scope of services that includes telemedicine and other services that can be provided remotely using communication technologies. It can conclude that, telehealth including telemedicine and a variety of other services such as evaluation research, public health, consumer education, administration, evaluation research and, health professionals education. Besides that, the World Health Organization (WHO) makes a difference between telehealth and telemedicine. If telehealth is understood to mean the integration of telecommunication systems into the practice of protecting and promoting health, while telemedicine is the incorporation of these systems into curative medicine, then it must be acknowledged that telehealth corresponds more closely to the international activities of World Health Organization (WHO) in the field of public health. It covers education for health, public and community health, health systems development and epidemiology whereas telemedicine is oriented more towards the clinical apart. Thus, telemedicine is literally medicine practiced at a distance and telehealth is the delivery of health care services at a distance. In mid 1996, Malaysian...
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