EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ADOLESCENT PREGNANCY
This essay aims to use the principles of epidemiology to describe the problem of adolescent pregnancy and demonstrate its significance and impact as a public health problem. In the same wise applying epidemiological principles the determinants of teenage pregnancy are identified and an attempt is made to conceptualise the interplay between the socioeconomic environments and the biological factors in giving rise to the problem and influencing the life course of the condition. This essay will also demonstrate the need to utilise the knowledge of the epidemiology of the condition to inform clinical governance and good clinical practice in the management and prevention of the health and social complications suffered by pregnant adolescents. Knowledge of the epidemiology of adolescent pregnancy will facilitate the formulation of health promotion and health prevention strategies aimed at reducing the global impact of the condition because adolescent pregnancy and child survival constitutes a significant part of wider global public health agenda such as the millennium development goals. Gibbs (1988) reflective model will be adopted in the course of this essay and the conclusion to this essay recommendations for research and improved understanding will be made.
Epidemiology is the defined as the study of the distribution and risk/protective factors in a named population this study is then applied to control public health problems ( Lucianne b et al 2005). (Orme , J 2007) described public health epidemiology as the main component of public health and should be the primary tool in methods accessing the causes of poor health and to evaluate preventive and therapeutic measures, epidemiology analyses the relationship between disease ill health and causative factors ,In the past classical public health epidemiology was used and its activities includes surveillance and outbreak control of communicable disease outbreak , monitoring the socio demographic and geographical distribution of disease ,also identifying risk factors of diseases and evaluating treatment of illness but presently the 21ST century public health epidemiology is applied in public health and it is more complex and sophisticated than classical public health epidemiology and not only is it involved in surveillance and outbreak control of communicable disease 21st century public health epidemiology models disease risks and developmental outcome but also evaluates health service systems but also health care and social care interventions, it is involved in health needs assessment of population, prevention of accidents and injuries and disseminates critical appraisal skills.Epidemiology identifies the population at risk in relations to the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates (Coggon et al 2003). Epidemiology provides evidence based tools in studying disease, effectiveness of health care services and public health interventions, it provides data that would guide public health interventions (lucianne B et al 2005 ) .
Public health is population based and has been defined as ‘the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life through organised efforts of society these efforts will address policy issues at the level of the population health and will tackle the role of health and disease as well as considering the provision of effective health services’ (Acheson 1988 cited in Orme. J et al 2007). Public health is population based and promotes health of a society through informed choices and organised efforts either by individuals, communities the private or public organisations ( Wanless, D.2004). The World Health Organisation. WHO defined health as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’ (WHO 1948). Adolescence pregnancy is categorised as a part of Sexual and Reproductive health which means health in relations to the reproductive system...
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