The Determinants of Teenage Pregnancy Using the Seedhouse Grid Diagram (1986).

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The main determinant of teenage pregnancy is commonly seen to be poor or lack of sexual education, but this essay will outline and explore further options such as social and economic issues including the involvement of education via both schooling and the media on sexual attitudes influencing adolescent sexual behaviour. Pregnancy amongst adolescents is common around the world; however different cultures and different geographical regions have various explanations for teenage pregnancy. This essay will expand and delve into the determinants using elements from The Seedhouse Diagram (1986). Educational and the media are both types of determinants with sexual education seen as being biological and not involved with the emotions where as the media portrays a glamorised version of sex showing no consequences or use of contraception giving the adolescents the belief that unprotected sex is safe and consequence free. A relationship may exist between low attendances by adolescents at school, poor accomplishment in an educational setting with a higher chance of experiencing adolescent pregnancy.

Education in schools about contraception is seen by adolescents as being delivered in a biological way which can leave the students disinterested, they may be unable to take on board what is being taught about protected sex through use of contraception because of boredom and/or embarrassment. The lack of attention paid to the educational sessions on contraception and protected sex can lead to a variety of dilemmas faced by the adolescent that can lead to early pregnancy such as incorrect usage of contraception, inconsistent usage or even the failure to use contraception. Research by the Social Exclusion Unit (2004) has proven that there is a relationship that exists between low attendances by adolescents at school, poor accomplishment in an educational setting with a higher chance of experiencing adolescent pregnancy. Although research has shown there is a statistical link between low attendance and poor achievement in education with teenage pregnancy but there is no further research indicating the reasoning for this theory. Possible suggestions towards the theory could be that adolescents who feel they don't have the capability to progress in an educational environment or they have/expect to face negative employment outcomes as Rich-Edwards (2002, 555) deems that females who have ambition and a self belief of their own success in education and careers will be far more cautious about using contraception so that they can complete their ambitious goals before making decisions on family planning Rich-Edwards (2002) states that ‘poverty causes teen pregnancy. Simply put, girls with prospects do not have babies. Bonnell et al (2005) completed research that investigated the connection concerning teenage attitudes to education and the consequent risk of adolescent pregnancy. They concluded that "Dislike of school is associated with the subsequent increased risk of teenage pregnancy but the mechanism underlying any possible casual link is unlikely to involve ‘alternative' expectations or deficits in sexual health knowledge or confidence" (Bonnell et al.2005.230) Sexual education that is delivered ‘too biological' can render teenagers with embarrassment over the subject and use of contraception. This is also further developed if the adolescents parents or guardians are also inhibited when expressing attitudes towards sex and contraception, Ware (2007, 322-339) states that a "lack of parental guidance on issues of sexuality and sex education was reinforced by cultural taboo's that inhibit such discussions". Embarrassment involving using and getting information about contraception is apparent in both male and female adolescents. For teenage girls there are various reasons such as; a young female may mature before her friends and peers and therefore feel unable to talk because she feels different to her peers and also a common...
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