SUPPORTING TEACHING AND LEARNING IN SCHOOLS CERTIFICATE COURSE QUESTIONS ON UNIT ONE 1. 1. OUTLINE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SEQUENCE AND RATE OF DEVELOPMENT. WHY MIGHT CHILDREN DEVELOP AT DIFFERENT RATES IN DIFFERENT AREAS? Sequence of development: the usual order in which development occurs. Ie. A baby’s physical development may begin with rolling over, then sitting up, crawling and then walking, whereas another baby may sit up, followed by walking but never actually crawls. Even though an element may be missed the development still proceeds in what is viewed as an expected pattern. Rate of development: the usual time frame in which development takes place. Ie. Where one baby may achieve walking unaided at 10 months, another may achieve it at 12 months and another may achieve it at 16 months. There is no set ‘age’ for walking just a time frame for when this usually occurs. Every child is unique and will always develop at their own pace. Where one child may follow the same sequence of development as another child, the age at which they reach each stage will vary depending on the individual. There are four main areas of development: Physical development: This includes their ‘Fine motor skills’, which involve the co-ordination and control of small muscles, and skills like holding a rattle, picking up crumbs and scribbling with a pencil or wiring; ‘Gross motor skills’ which involve the co-ordination and control of large muscles and skills like walking, sitting and running; ‘General co-ordination’ and ‘Hand-eye co-ordination’. This area of development will provide children with the abilities they need to explore and interact with the world around them. However, Physical development really does encompass so many different tasks and abilities. Genetics, size at birth, body build, nutrition and culture can all influence motor and physical development. Social, behavioural, moral and emotional development includes many aspects of child development: Learning about the feelings of others and co-operating with others; learning to take turns and sharing; social skills and the development of self esteem and self-expression. This area of development will shape a child into what they will become later in life by teaching proper reactions to emotional matters. Intellectual/cognitive development which will include: Decision making and problem solving; explanation and reasoning; developing creative and imaginative skills; and learning to use their skills in different ways. This area of development is not always easy to monitor, children’s brains develop as they have new experiences. You cannot see the brain developing, but you can see what new things the child can do. Communication development includes: Using language to explain reasoning; expressing feelings and the ability to describe events. This area of development is not just about pronouncing words correctly: understanding language, putting sentences together correctly, speaking fluently, finding the right words, then being able to use your language appropriately in social situations – list is endless! Every child is different and will develop at their own rate. While one child may follow the same sequence of development as another child, the age and rate at which they reach each stage will vary depending on each child. Although development is often divided into different areas, it is important to remember that they are interconnected and link with one another.
DISCUSS TWO PERSONAL FACTORS AND TWO EXTERNAL FACTORS THAT COULD INFLUENCE A CHILD OR YOUNG PERSON’S DEVELOPMENT Every child’s development is influenced by a wide range of factors. Personal Factors: Learning difficulties: A child with a general learning disability may find it more difficult to learn, understand and do things compared with other children of the same age. Like all children, children with learning disabilities can continue to progress and learn throughout their childhood, but more slowly. The degrees of...
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