| 1.1 | Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years |
Each and every child develops at a different rate to other children, no two are the same.
These areas of development are broken down into several categories which include:
Social, moral, emotional and behavioural
Communication and speech
The guide below explains what you might expect from the development of the child through various ages:
Physical development: this refers to the body increasing in ability and functionality and comprises of gross motor skills (using large muscles) with movement in their legs and arms whilst also developing fine motor skills (precise use of muscles) such as the movement of fingers and toes.
New born babies will lie on their backs with their head held to one side yet turn their head looking for a teat or nipple. They will have primitive reflexes such as swallowing, rooting, grasping, stepping and sucking.
By 1 month old head control will be still be unsteady, and their hands will be in tight fists. Babies will grasp at objects that have touched the palm of their hands. they may turn their heads and eyes in unison and smile at familiar faces, smells or sounds, they also like to observe the face of adults at feeding time.
At 3 months old they can hold a small object such as a rattle for a few seconds if placed in their hand and enjoys observing movements of their own hands and play with them, kicking their legs and waving arms. They can lift their head and turn when placed on their front.
At 4 months they will use their arms to support themselves when laying on their stomachs and can turn from their back to their side. They will hold onto and shake small objects. They will, with support start sitting and will gradually sit unaided by 6 months. They will raise their hands in anticipation of being lifted.
At 6 months they will roll over and push their head and chest off the floor when placed on their front. Their hand grasp is more prevalent with whole hand use to pass an object from one hand to the next.
At 9 months they will start to move around either by crawling or shuffling and are able to sit alone without the need of support. They will reach out for toys when sitting and poke at small items with their index finger. They will use index and middle fingers along with their thumb in a pincer grip to hold onto small objects and will take and hold a small brick in each hand. They will lift a block but are only capable of releasing it by dropping. If a young baby is held upright they will try to make stepping movements on a firm surface. They will be startled by sudden sounds or bright lights. When hungry, in pain, need changing or comforting they will cry.
In their first year they will start to move around either by crawling or shuffling and eventually try to start walking with support. They will start to demonstrate hand inclination and pick up small objects using a tidy pincer grip. They enjoy have the ability to feed themselves and will enjoy doing so, holding cups with assistance. They can click 2 cubes together and put cubes into a box after first being shown had to do so. They can understand the world around them and know who their main carers are and may possibly cry when left with someone they are not familiar with. They will wave goodbye and point at things with their fingers.
At 18 months they will clumsily hold a pencil or crayon and try to write with it and use their hands skilfully to arrange and move small objects,dropping things onto the floor whilst looking to see where they are. They can walk downstairs with a held hand and push or pull toys when walking. They can now walk alone and will try to kick, throw and roll a ball. They can turn handles and pull off their shoes, they can use a spoon and hold objects with a delicate pincer grip. They can squat to pick up an...