Sports Psychology

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Does a male coach, motivate female athletes differently to male athletes between the ages of 18-21? Abstract
A psychology questionnaire for 99 participants, 96 athletes and 3 coaches to find out whether a male coach motivates females athletes differently to male athletes between the ages of 18-21. The questionnaire was taken place in a spacious area and was conducted individually, one to one, in a quiet room away from others. The questions were semantic questions and were discussed openly with the athletes and coaches to gain valid results. The results were considered not significant with a P value of 0.7704 highlighting that females and males are coached and motivated the same as one another by their coaches. Introduction

Motivation is defined as “the intensity and direction of one's effort” (Sage 1977). Direction refers to the decision an athlete makes to commit and to turn up to training on a regular basis. The intensity is about how much effort athletes are prepared to give in each training session. In sport, these dimensions are related too by committed athletes attending training on a regular basis and working hard during their sessions. Motivation is a combination of the drive within us to achieve our aims/goals alongside the external factors which affect it. It comes in two forms known as intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation comes from within, it is internal. It is the desire needed, in order to perform well and succeed. It can be a feeling of pride and enjoyment in performing a new skill and learning a new technique or a feeling of accomplishment when overcoming a problem or task. For this to occur, SMART goals must be set. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside the athlete. It may be social sources such as not wanting to disappoint parents and coaches, or tangible rewards such as trophies and money. Extrinsically motivated athletes tend to focus on the competitiveness or individual performance outcome instead of the overall outcome. Every individual has different motivation levels. Therefore some athletes may need motivating more than others. If an athlete is taking part in a type of activity or sport that they enjoy and understand, their intrinsic motivation will be high. Therefore the amount of effort and intensity they put into that activity or sport will also be high due to them being motivated and happy to do so. However if an athlete was taking part in an activity or sport they did not enjoy or understand, their effort and intensity level would be low as they are not motivated to do so. For us to have strong motivation, we need a reason that is strong, robust and compelling. It has to come from within (Deci & Ryan, 2002). We will never be truly motivated unless we really want it. The two theories used within motivation are attribution theory and achievement motivation theory. Attribution theory is used to influence athletes’ psychological states and find out how individual differences predispose people into specific types of attributions of success and failure (Gould, 2007). Attribution theory focuses on how people explain their success or failures. The diagram below shows the categories used to analyze an individual’s view. (Gould, 2007) Attribution Theory:

Basic attribution categories

Locus of control
Locus of causality

“These most basic attribution categories are stability (a factor to which one attributes success or failure is either fairly permanent or unstable), locus of causality (a factor is either external or internal to the individual), and locus of control (a factor is or is not under our control).” [ (Gould, 2007) ] “The Achievement motivation theory relates personal characteristics and background to a need for achievement and the associated competitive drive to meet standards of excellence.” [ (Bhasin, 2010) ] When a male coach motivates and coaches’ female and male athlete’s does his body language, tone of voice and motivation...
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