Speech Organs

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  • Topic: Phonology, Phoneme, Phonetics
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  • Published : November 17, 2008
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Phonetics (from the Greek: φωνή, phōnē, "sound, voice") is the subfield of linguistics that comprises the study of the physical sounds of human speech. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds (phones), and the processes of their physiological production, auditory reception, and neurophysiological perception. Phonetics was studied as early as 2,500 years ago in ancient India, with Pāṇini's account of the place and manner of articulation of consonants in his 5th century BC treatise on Sanskrit. The major Indic alphabets today order their consonants according to Pāṇini's classification. Contents

1 Types of phonetics
2 Phonetics and phonology
3 See also
4 External links and references
5 Bibliography

[edit] Types of phonetics
Phonetics as a research discipline has three main branches:
articulatory phonetics is concerned with the articulation of speech: The position, shape, and movement of articulators or speech organs, such as the lips, tongue, and vocal folds. •acoustic phonetics is concerned with acoustics of speech: The properties of the sound waves, such as their frequency and harmonics. •auditory phonetics is concerned with speech perception: How sound is received by the inner ear and perceived by the brain. It also includes a fourth branch:

forensic phonetics is the use of phonetics (the science of speech) for forensic (legal) purposes. [edit] Phonetics and phonology
In contrast to phonetics, phonology is the study of language-specific systems and patterns of sound and gesture, relating such concerns with other levels and aspects of language. While phonology is grounded in phonetics, it has emerged as a distinct area of linguistics, dealing with abstract systems of sounds and gestural units (e.g, phoneme, features, mora, etc.) and their variants (e.g., allophones), the distinctive properties (features) which form the basis of meaningful contrast between these units, and their classification into natural classes based on shared behavior and phonological processes. Phonetics tends to deal more with the physical properties of sounds and the physiological aspects of speech production and perception. It deals less with how sounds are patterned to encode meaning in language (though overlap in theorizing, research and clinical applications are possible). Phonology (from the Greek: φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound" and λόγος, lógos, "word, speech, subject of discussion") is the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language, or the field of linguistics studying this use. Just as a language has syntax and vocabulary, it also has a phonology in the sense of a sound system. When describing the formal area of study, the term typically describes linguistic analysis either beneath the word (e.g., syllable, onset and rime, phoneme, articulatory gesture, articulatory feature, mora, etc.) or to units at all levels of language that are thought to structure sound for conveying linguistic meaning. It is viewed as the subfield of linguistics that deals with the sound systems of languages. Whereas phonetics is about the physical production, acoustic transmission and perception of the sounds of speech, phonology describes the way sounds function within a given language or across languages to encode meaning. The term 'phonology' has been used in the linguistics of the 20th century as a cover term uniting phonemics and phonetics. Current phonology can interface with disciplines such as psycholinguistics and speech perception, resulting in specific areas like articulatory or laboratory phonology. An important part of traditional forms of phonology have been studying which sounds can be grouped into distinctive units within a language. For example, the [p] sound in "pot" is described as including the articulatory feature of aspirated, while the word- and syllable-final [p] in "soup" is not aspirated (indeed, it might be realized as a glottal stop). However, English speakers...
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