1. Introduction to the Sounds of English- Vowels, Diphthongs & Consonants. 2. Introduction to Stress and Intonation.
3. Situational Dialogues / Role Play.
4. Oral Presentations- Prepared and Extempore.
5. ‘Just A Minute’ Sessions (JAM).
6. Describing Objects / Situations / People.
7. Information Transfer
9. Telephoning Skills.
10. Giving Directions.
1.Introduction to Sounds of English - Vowels, Diphthongs,
Language has a very important social purpose, because it is mainly used for linguistic communication. A language can be used in two ways for the purposes of communication; it can be spoken or written. Linguistics is a systematic study of language. Phonetics is a branch of linguistics and it is the branch dealing with the medium of speech. It deals with the production, transmission and reception of the sounds of human speech. Speech Sounds are very broadly divided in to two categories, namely vowels and consonants.
Vowels : There are twenty distinctive vowel sounds, made up of twelve pure vowels or monophthongs and eight vowel glides or diphthongs. Vowels are the most important sounds. Every word has to have a vowel sound .To articulate vowels one needs to allow free flow of air through the mouth. By altering the shape of one‟s lips or the tongue position one can articulate various vowels.
Vowels are of two kinds – Pure vowels and Diphthongs. Of the twelve pure vowels or Monophthongs seven are short and five are long. We notice that the sounds indicated by the long vowels are stretched and the sounds indicated by the short vowels are clipped. Besides Monophthongs there are eight vowel sounds called Diphthongs. They are actually combinations of two vowel sounds with the voice gliding from one sound to another. Thus with a sound like the one indicated by the underlined letter in bay , the parts of the mouth concerned with the pronunciations here first take up the appropriate position to utter sound in the area of/e/and then move approximately to
There are eight diphthongs in English. The first three are uttered with the articulatory organs moving rapidly towards the /i/ position since the second part of each of these sounds is uttered with a glide towards the front of the tongue, where the sound /i/ is pronounced.
Consonants:- A consonant is usually described, taking into account whether it is voiceless or voiced, according to its place of articulation and the manner of articulation. Consonants can be described according to their places of articulation. They are; (a) Bilabial : The two lips are articulators
Ex : pile, bile
(b) Labio –dental : The active articulator is the lower lip and the passive articulators are the upper front teeth.
Ex : Fine , vine
(c) . Dental : The tip of the tongue is the active articulator and the upper front teeth are the passive articulators.
Ex: Thin, Then
(d) Alveolar: The tip or the blade of the tongue is the active articulator and the teeth ridge is the passive articulator.
Ex : Tin, din
Post-alveolar: The tip of the active articulator and the part of the roof of the mouth that lies immediately behind the teeth ridge is the passive articulatorVisit www.jntuhome.com for more materials, books, ppts, seminars & projects. To get free updates to mobile sms ON JNTUHOME to 09870807070 or Click this link http://labs.google.co.in/smschannels/subscribe/JNTUHOME
2.Introduction to Stress and Intonation
It is an important feature of spoken English, and the use of incorrect word accentuation by Indian speakers has been found to be one of the most frequent causes of their being unintelligible to speakers of English.
A word in English has one or more syllables. In each syllable there is one sound usually a vowel , that is more prominent than the rest. A syllable also corresponds to a chest pulse, a muscular movement, pushing the air out of the lungs. Vowels generally take the...