Solid Waste Management

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Acknowledgement
First acknowledgement is to almighty for guiding the intellect long the correct path. We hope it is a continuous process. Not forgetting our family for not providing everything that is related to this project work and their advice, which is the most needed for this project. We would also like to thank them for providing internet, books, computer and all that as our source to complete this project. They have also supported me and encouraged me to do this project.

Then we would like to thank our teacher, Mrs. Reeta Singh for guiding me throughout this paper presentation. Our teacher has given us a suitable and very good project; Last but not the least we would like to thank our friends who shared their ideas with us; and were able to combine and discuss together to have completed our task. Finally we would like to thank to our school for providing us information about the project and choosing an appropriate task for the students of class 9.

Introduction

Solid waste is an byproduct of human activities which tends to increase with rapid urbanization, improved living standards and changing consumption patterns. Management of increasing amounts of solid waste has become a major challenge in many cities in developing countries. If solid waste is properly used, it can be a valuable resource, but if it is not effectively managed, it can result in serious adverse impacts on environment and public health. Solid waste management is therefore a critical component within urban sanitation and it is also one of the most important and resource intensive services provided by municipalities. Most urban residents consider solid waste management as the most important environmental problem in urban areas of Nepal. In Nepal, urbanization is increasing at an alarming rate putting immense pressure on municipal services, particularly to manage the ever increasing amounts of waste. At present most of the wastes generated in municipalities are not being adequately managed thereby creating a serious health and environmental hazard. Therefore, poor urban settlements are most affected because of indiscriminate dumping and lack of open spaces The environmental implication of solid waste management failure has resulted in the decline of health and hygiene conditions of a growing population. Nepal and especially the capital Kathmandu are today going through rapid changes and the urbanization is going fast. The urbanization result in more waste and concurrently the development result in new life patterns, standard of living and attitudes change the composition. New industries are erected that changes the waste composition to include more and more hazardous waste. The situation in Kathmandu is not representative for whole Nepal but if the developing problems that are connected with solid waste are not taken care of further urbanization will most likely give similar scenario in other growing cities. Only about 15 percent of Nepal's total population lives in urban areas. However, because of the lack of employment opportunities in rural areas and the concentration of many facilities and services such as education and health care in urban centers, the rate of urbanization is very high. With rapid urbanization and changing consumption patterns, solid waste management has become a major challenge in most urban centers in Nepal, particularly the larger ones. Only 17 percent of urban households have their waste collected by waste collectors. Furthermore, in low-income households, indicated by houses having no toilets, only 2 percent of the households have their waste collected. Open waste piles are a common site and the work of municipalities is often limited to sweeping the streets and dumping the waste in the nearest river or vacant land. Modern waste management techniques, such as source separated door-to-door collection systems, material recovery and recycling facilities, sanitary landfilling, and private sector participation have...
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