Soicalisation

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CHAPTER 4
What Are the Keys to Understanding Cultural and Ethnic Identities?

CHAPTER 4 OBJECTIVES AND OUTLINE

Chapter 4 Objectives:

As a result of reading Chapter 4 and participating in related class discussions and activities, you should be able to:

(1) Pay more attention to your own and others’ family and gender socialization issues;

(2) Recognize systems-level societal factors that influence newcomers’ acculturation process;

(3) Be more mindful about cultural and ethnic identity factors when communicating with culturally and ethnically different others;

(4) Be sensitive to identity issues and learn to listen more deeply to unfamiliar others;

(5) Understand that cultural and ethnic values form parts of the contents of sociocultural membership identity;

(6) Compare the ethnic-cultural identity typological model and the racial-ethnic identity development model; and

(7) Have a new appreciation for the complexity of the identity experience in biracial and multiracial individuals.

Chapter 4 Outline:

I. Family and Gender Socialization
Introduction: Identity: reflective self-conception or self-image. Derives from family, cultural, and other socialization processes (NOTE: This is a brief description; see textbook for complete definitions of all terms.)

1. Social identity: includes cultural, ethnic, gender, social class, age, etc.
2. Personal identity: unique attributes associated with oneself
A. Families Come in Different Shapes
1. Types of families
a. Traditional family: father-mother pair with child or children
b. Extended family: extended kinship groups (aunts, cousins, etc.)
c. Blended family: previous marriages merging into a new family
d. Single family: household headed by a single parent
2. Two family types in decision-making process
a. Personal family system: democratic system, individualistic and small power distance value patterns
b. Positional family system: Often collectivistic and larger power distance cultures, rule conformity (e.g., “Children should obey their parents.”)
B. Gender Socialization and Interaction Patterns
1. Gender identity: meanings associated with images and expectations of femaleness and maleness
2. Gender-related behaviors learned in home, school, and games Ii. Group Membership: Intercultural Boundary Crossing
A. The Process Of Acculturation and Enculturation
1. Acculturation: degree of identity change in new environment
2. Enculturation: socialization process in original home culture
3. Bicultural: relates to both cultures of enculturation and acculturation
B. Systems-Level Factors: elements in host culture that influence adaptation
1. Socioeconomic conditions (good economy results in more tolerance)
2. Attitude re “cultural assimilation” or “cultural pluralism”
a. Assimilationist: expects immigrants to conform quickly
b. Pluralistic: encourages diversity of values
3. Local institutions (schools, mass media) give firsthand contact with members of host culture
C. Individual-Level Factors
1. “Push” factors (e.g., persecution) and “pull” factors (e.g., economic opportunity)
2. Cultural (geography, political system) and interaction-based knowledge (language, etc.) critical to adaptation
3. Demographic variables (age, educational level) affect adaptation
4. Resilience or personal strength
D. Interpersonal F2F and Network-Level Factors
1. Ethnic communities provide critical support
2. Established locals and supportive social networks also support
3. Internet contact with new and old cultural contacts
E. Mass Media-Level Factors
1. Ethnic media eases loneliness and stress
4. Mass media is broad-based influence. Personal relationships are deeper. Iii. Group Affiliation And Identity Formation
Introduction:
Social identity: cultural or ethnic membership, gender, social class, etc. Two factors:
1....
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