Social Institution

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What is a Social Institution?
A group of social positions
Connected by social relations
Performing a social role
- a major sphere of social life organized to meet some human need

Relatively permanent in their content
A unified structure
Necessarily value-laden
An institution is a relatively permanent structure of social patterns, roles, and relations that people enact in certain sanctioned and unified ways for the purpose of satisfying basic social needs.

Simplify social behaviors for the individual person
Provide ready-made forms of social relations and social roles for the individual •Act as agencies of coordination and stability for the total culture •Tend to control behavior

Social institutions exist because they meet universal needs. •The major task of society is its survival:
Replacing members
Socializing new members
Producing/distributing goods and services
Preserving order
Providing sense of purpose

Conflict theorists:
View social institutions as the primary means by which the elite maintains its privileged position •Through the preservation of order society, legitimizes and perpetuates social inequalities

Major social institutions
Function: producing and rearing the young
Basic unit: society and educational system

- closely knit, strong family ties, strong loyalty, extended: big, kinship ties: “compadre”, higher regard: women

Reproduction of the race and rearing of the young
Cultural transmission or enculturation
Providing affection and a sense of security
Providing the environment for personality development and the growth of self-concept in relation to others •Providing social status

Family patterns
a. Structure
* conjugal or nuclear family – primary family consisting of husband, wife, and children * consanguine or extended family – consists of married couple, children, and other relatives b. Marriage
* Endogamy: members of the same category, class, or group
* Exogamy: members of different categories, classes, or groups * Monogamy: one man and one woman
* Polygamy: one man and more than one woman
* Polyandry: one woman and more than one man
c. Line of descent
* patrilineal – descent is recognized through the father’s line * matrilineal - descent is recognized through the mother’s line * bilineal - descent is recognized through both the father’s and mother’s line d. Place of residence

* patrilocal – when the newly married couple lives with the parents of the husband * matrilocal - when the newly married couple lives with the parents of the wife * neolocal - when the newly married couple maintains a separate household and live by themselves d. Authority

* Matriarchal – when the mother or female is the head and makes the major decision Patriarchal - when the father is considered the head and plays the dominant role Equalitarian – when both father and mother share in making decisions and are equal in authority

Trends & characteristics among Filipino families
Children in poverty
Single-parent families
Increase in working mothers
Pressures on children
Overindulged children
Child abuse

Assessment of trends
Decline of the nuclear family
Difficulties for schools magnified
Agencies overloaded
Many children in jeopardy

Basic purpose: transmission of knowledge
Cultural complexity: specialized knowledge and skill

- Move the people in the mainstream of society
- A place for the contemplation of reality

- Intellectual/Education: Contribution of schools to the development and maintenance of education at the different levels of society - Political: Contribution of schools to the political development at different levels of society - Economics: Contributions of schools to the technical or economic development and...
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