Software Testing and Quality Assurance Theory and Practice

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Software Testing and Quality Assurance
Theory and Practice

Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Preliminaries

Software Testing and QA Theory and Practice (Chapter 1: Basic Concepts and Preliminaries)

© Naik & Tripathy

1

Outline of the Chapter



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The Quality Revolution Software Quality Role of Testing Verification and Validation Failure, Error, Fault and Defect The Notion of Software Reliability The Objectives of Testing What is a Test Case? Expected Outcome The Concept of Complete Testing The Central Issue in Testing Testing Activities Testing Level Source of Information for Test Selection White-box and Black-box Testing Test Planning and Design Monitoring and Measuring Test Execution Test Tools and Automation Test Team Organization and Management Software Testing and QA Theory and Practice (Chapter 1: Basic Concepts and Preliminaries) © Naik & Tripathy

2

The Quality Revolution
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Started in Japan by Deming, Juran, and Ishikawa during 1940s In 1950s, Deming introduced statistical quality control to Japanese engineers Statistical quality control (SQC) is a discipline based on measurement and statistics – SQC methods use seven basic quality management tool • Pareto analysis, Trend Chart, Flow chart, Histogram, Scatter diagram, Control chart, Cause and effect diagram



“Lean principle” was developed by Taiichi Ohno of Toyota “A systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste through continuous improvement, flowing the product at the pull of the customer in pursuit of perfection.”

Software Testing and QA Theory and Practice (Chapter 1: Basic Concepts and Preliminaries)

© Naik & Tripathy

3

The Quality Revolution

Figure 1.1: The Shewhart cycle
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Deming introduced Shewhart’s PDCA cycle to Japanese researchers It illustrate the activity sequence: – – – – Setting goals Assigning them to measurable milestones Assessing the progress against the milestones Take action to improve the process in the next cycle Software Testing and QA Theory and Practice (Chapter 1: Basic Concepts and Preliminaries)

© Naik & Tripathy

4

The Quality Revolution
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In 1954, Juran spurred the move from SQC to TQC (Total Quality Control) Key Elements of TQC: – – – – – Quality comes first, not short-term profits The customer comes first, not the producer Decisions are based on facts and data Management is participatory and respectful of all employees Management is driven by cross-functional committees



An innovative methodology developed by Ishikawa called causeand-effect diagram

Figure 1.2: Ishikawa diagram

Software Testing and QA Theory and Practice (Chapter 1: Basic Concepts and Preliminaries)

© Naik & Tripathy

5

The Quality Revolution


National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) of United States broadcast a documentary “If Japan Can ... Why Can’t We?” on June 24th, 1980

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Leaders in United States started emphasizing on quality In 1987 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award was introduced in U.S.A Similar to the Deming prize in Japan



In Baldrige National Award the quality is viewed as:
Something defined by the customer



In Deming prize, the quality is viewed as:
Something defined by the producer by conformance to specifications

Software Testing and QA Theory and Practice (Chapter 1: Basic Concepts and Preliminaries)

© Naik & Tripathy

6

Software Quality


Five Views of Software Quality:
– – – – – Transcendental view User’s view Manufacturing view Product view Value-based view



Software Quality in terms of quality factors and criteria
– A quality factor represents behavioral characteristic of a system • Examples: correctness, reliability, efficiency, and testability – A quality criterion is an attribute of a quality factor that is related to software development • Example: modularity is an attribute of software architecture



Quality Models
– Examples: ISO...
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