Sociology-Education

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Class Difference - Achievement

Cultural Deprivation Theory | This theory suggests that working parents fail to transmit the appropriate norms, values, and attitudes that are the ‘Correct’ culture – needed for educational success. | Culture| This refers to all the norms, values, beliefs, knowledge that a society or a group regards as important. This is transmitted through generations.| Basil BERSTEIN | This Sociologist distinguishes between two Speech Codes| Elaborated Code| This code is used by the Middle Class. Its more analytic, uses a wide use of vocabulary and complex sentences. | Restricted Code| This code is used by Working Class. It’s less analytic and more descriptive, with limited vocabulary and simple sentences.| Immediate Gratification| Wanting rewards immediately rather than waiting, and making sacrifices to work hard for future rewards. Practised by the Working Class| Deffered Gratification | Postponing rewards until later on in life, and making sacrifices to work hard in present time. Then reap the rewards later on in life – Practised by the middle class | Fatalism| This is the belief that ‘Whatever will be, will be’ WC children do not believe they can improve their position within education through their individual efforts as its fate.| Collectivism | This is the value of being a part of a group mroe than succeding as an individual.| Present Time Orientation | This is seeing the present as more important than the furture and as a result fail to believe in long term goals or plans.| Barry SUGARMAN | This Sociologist argues the working Class Subculture has four key features that acts as a barrier educational success.| Herbert HYMAN| This sociologist argues that the values and beliefs of lower class subcultures are self imposed barriers to educational career and success. The lower class believe they have less oppourtunity for induvial achievement. | j.w.b DOUGLAS | This sociologist found that working class pupils scored lower on tests of ability than Middle Class pupils. He aruges that this is because WC Parents are less likely to support their childs intellectual development i.e Reading. | BOURDIEU | This Sociologist argues that Middle Class pupils are more successful the WC pupils because their parents posses more capital ‘assets’ | Economic Capital| The wealth that Middle Class Familes Own|

Cultural Capital| The attitudes,Values,Skills,Knowledge of the MiddleClass| Educational Capital| MC use their greater econominc/cultural capital to give their children an advantage in gaining this “.......” – qualifications. Thus this reproduces advantage of MC passing it from generation to generation| BECKER| This Sociologist argues that teachers lable the MC pupils as the ‘ideal pupil’ and prefer to teach them rather than the WC. | Labelling| This is an internal process within schools wherby we attach meanings to pupils to make sense of them.| Self Fufilling Propechy | The process wherby a prediction of someone ‘Label’ comes true simply because it has been made by someone else. | Streaming| Is an extreme institutionalised form of labelling. Works by putting pupils of similar ability together in the same class.| LACEY| This Sociologist describes ‘streaming’ as a differantionation- a way of seperating the sheep frmo the goats and then educating them differently. Often this methodology of teaching created self fufilinf proechy. | Pro-School subculture| This is normally formed by those of higher educational attainment. They accept the Schools Values and Goals of harwod. Typically they enjoy school and respect teacher authority. |

Anti-school subculture| This is normally formed by those of less educational attainment. They reject school’s values and often invert rules. They have slim to none respect for authority (teachers) and avoid work, truant. |

Ethnic - Difference Achievement

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BEREITER & ENGELMAN| These Sociologists claim...
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