Class is the most important influence on educational failure.
Herbert Hyman argued that the system of values of the lower classes created an obstacle to their improvement. Hyman outlined the following differences between the system of values of the working and middle classes. The working class; place less value on education, place less value on attaining a higher occupational status and believe that there is less opportunity for personal advancement - the belief itself further reduces the opportunity as it creates a self fulfilling prophecy.
Therefore, according to Hyman, the motivation to succeed and do well in school is generally lower for members of the working class.
In addition, Sugarman states that many middle-class occupations encourage planning for the future: investing time, energy and money in training, to meet the requirements of higher status posts. In comparison, working class jobs reach the maximum income fairly quickly, but provide fewer opportunities for promotion.
Sugarman argues that differentiating in the nature of jobs tends to generate differences in attitude and outlook. As they have less control over the future, less opportunity to improve their status and less income to invest, working class people tend to be concerned about direct immediate satisfaction.
Cultural deprivation theory states that those who are at the bottom of the class system are being deprived of some values, attitudes and special skills that are essential for educational success. This theory puts the blame for educational failure on children and their families, their neighbourhood and the subculture of their social group. The child who has been culturally deprived is lacking in skills, attitudes and important values that are essential to high educational success. Their environment could be said to be culturally as well as economically poor.
There are class...