Situation of English Language Teaching

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English Language Teaching Situation in Pakistan Analysis)
“…a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia”

(Attitude

&

Motivation

Macaulay 1935

Ms. Mehwish Haider

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English Language Teaching Situation in Pakistan

Table of Contents

Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………...3 Definition of Second language ……………………………………………………….……...….4 Definition of foreign Language …………………………………………………………………4 Different needs to learn English as second/ foreign Language ……………..………………...4 Definition of Motivation ………………………………………………………………………...5 Sources of motivation ……………...……………………………………………………………5 Models of Motivation ……………..…………………………………………………………….6 Social needs of Learning English Language in Pakistan …………………………….……….8 English as Foreign or second Language ……………..………………………………….……10 Pakistani Educational System ……………….………………………………………………..11 English Teaching situation in Pakistan ……………….……………………………………....13 Conclusion ……………..………………………………………………………………...……..15 Works Cited ………………………………………………………………………………….....18 Index……………………………………………………………………… separately attached

Introduction
2 English Language Teaching Situation in Pakistan

The English language is widely acknowledged to be the language of modern times; it is an international language for communication and education. English, according to the Time Almanac (2010), is the most widely spoken language in the world. It is spoken by approximately 1000 million people, which constitute almost 16 percent of the world‟s population. The vibrant use of English in all nooks and corners of the non-English speaking world has outnumbered native speakers by non-native users, involving 80% use of English between L2 speakers. (Deterding, 2006; Sarwar, 2001; Benecke, 1991; Crystal, 2000; 2003). It is so widely spoken that besides the internal varieties of English (varieties spoken within English speaking countries), the non-native English speaking part of the world has coined their own varieties of English, for example South East Asian English, Singaporean English, African English, and Nigerian English.

Pakistan has rich repository of language with Urdu as national language while hundreds of regional languages. Attitude of Pakistani society towards English has always remained ambivalent as it is language of Colonizers. This language has always been given status of outsider but on the same time it has been used to create a social identity. According to recent researches English is fast spreading in Pakistan, with 18 million Pakistanis (11% of the population) having a command over the English language, which makes it the 9th Largest English Speaking Nation in the world and the 3rd largest in Asia. Some people consider it second language while others call it foreign language. So before going further it is important to differentiate between second language and foreign language. Attitude and Motivation:

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English Language Teaching Situation in Pakistan

Attitude and motivation are closely related to each other. Learners‟ attitude towards English language basically determines their motivation. The relationship between motivation and attitude has been considered a prime concern in language learning research. Gardner and Lambert (1972) state that “his [the learner] motivation to learn is thought to be determined by his attitude towards the other group in particular and by his orientation towards the learning task itself”. Gardner (1985: 10) also sees attitudes as components of motivation in language learning. According to him, ‘motivation ... refers to the combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning the language plus favorable attitudes toward learning the language’. McDonough (1983, p.142) states that “motivation of the students is one of the most important factors influencing their success or failure in learning the language". Another factor is learners‟ attitudes. This is because an ESL/EFL...
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