Schema

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Theory of Schemata for Reading Process
Reading is activity that person requires and refers in all areas and through life. Also, reading one of the essential language skills in language classes. While reading text, comprehension takes important role. In order to comprehend text, readers benefit from background knowledge and experience. There is one theory about background knowledge and experience. The theory is named as Schema theory. Aim of this paper to mention Schema theory’s properties. Schema theory was introduced by Frederic Bartlett during working on constructive memory ın 1932 and schema theory was developed by R. C Anderson who was a respected educational psychologist. Schema theory combines readers’ background knowledge with the information in a text to comprehend that text. Stott define as schema theory” the process by which readers combine their own background knowledge with the information in a text to comprehend that text”. In the process of reading, “ comprehension of message entails drawing information from both the message and the internal schemata until sets are reconciled as a single schema or message” ( Anderson et al. in Hudson 1982:187). Schema theory is named as background knowledge. Using background knowledge assist reader to comprehend more rapidly and effectively. The organization of information in the long-term memory is related with the nation of schema (Singhal 1998). There are two type of schema theory and these are content schema and formal schema. Content schemata themselves can be classified into different types.  One which has attracted growing interest is the culture-specific content schema (Carrell, 1988; Carrell & Eisterhold, 1988). Several studies of second-language speakers and reading comprehension indicate that prior cultural experiences are extremely important in comprehending text (Anderson, 1979; Johnson, 1982; Steffenson & Joag-Dev, 1984). In fact, Brown et al. (1977) and Pearson and Gordon (1979) argue that...
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